Tips for using Browse:

Browsing is a valuable way to learn about birds, however it is a brute force approach and not designed for identification. A more sophisticated approach to finding a bird with specific field marks is to use the Step by Step Search. You can also try the Wizard to find a bird, which uses a question and answer approach, but again it does not give you the flexibility of the Step by Step Search.

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Solitary Sandpiper
Solitary Sandpiper: This medium-sized sandpiper has pale-spotted, dark brown back and rump, white underparts with streaks on neck and sides, dark head and a bold white eyering. It has a black tail with conspicuous black-and-white barred edges; olive-green bill, legs and feet. Feeds on insects and insect larvae, spiders, worms and tadpoles. Direct flight is light and buoyant. Sexes are similar.
Stilt Sandpiper
Stilt Sandpiper: This medium-sized sandpiper has gray-brown upperparts, white rump, heavily barred white underparts, dark cap, white eyebrows and brown ear patches. It has a long, black bill that curves down at the tip and long gray-green legs. It has a powerful, direct flight on long, rapidly beating wings. Sexes are similar.
Upland Sandpiper
Upland Sandpiper: Large bird, dark-spotted, brown upperparts, black rump. White chin, neck, throat. Breast and sides streaked with dark chevrons, white belly. Dark cap, white eye-rings. Bill is thin, olive-brown, decurved at tip. Wedge-shaped tail has dark center and barred edges visible in flight.
Baird's Sandpiper
Baird's Sandpiper: This medium-sized bird has scaled gray-brown upperparts, white underparts and a dark-spotted gray-brown breast. The crown, face and neck are buff with fine brown streaks. It has a white rump with a dark central stripe and black legs and feet. Feeds on insects and spiders. Swift direct flight with rapid wing beats; long wings allow them to make long flights. Sexes are similar.
Least Sandpiper
Least Sandpiper: This small sandpiper has brown-scaled upperparts and a rust-brown crown. The breast and throat are dark-spotted; belly, under tail are white. The wings have thin white stripes visible in flight. The black line on the rump extends onto the tail. The legs and feet are yellow-green. It feeds mostly on insects. It has a swift direct flight with rapid wing beats. Sexes are similar.
Semipalmated Sandpiper
Semipalmated Sandpiper: This small sandpiper has scaled gray-brown upperparts, white underparts and fine streaks on the breast and sides. It has a short, stout, straight black bill and black legs and feet. It feeds on insects, worms, small mollusks and crustaceans. Swift flight on rapidly beating wings. Sexes are similar.
White-rumped Sandpiper
White-rumped Sandpiper: Small sandpiper, brown and black scaled upperparts, distinct white rump. Neck and upper breast are white with brown streaks. Streaked head has white eyebrows. Thin white stripes on dark wings visible in flight. Tail is rounded and black. Dark legs and feet.
Pacific Loon
Pacific Loon: This medium-sized loon has a black-and-white checkered back and white underparts. It has a gray crown and nape, red eyes and a slender black bill. Iridescent throat patch can appear purple, green or black. Feeds mostly on fish, some crustaceans and insects. Flight is direct with rapid wing beats. Sexes are similar.
Red-throated Loon
Red-throated Loon: Small loon with scaled gray back and white underparts. Head and sides of neck are gray, throat is dark red, nape is black-and-white striped. Eyes are red. Feeds on fish, dives to 90 feet for them. Direct flight, rapid wing beats. Only loon to leap into flight from water or land.
Yellow-billed Loon
Yellow-billed Loon: Large loon, white-spotted black upperparts, white underparts, gray sides with fine white spots. Head is glossy green-black; neck has black-and-white rings. Yellow bill. Dives for small fish, crustaceans. Direct flight on deep wing beats. Solitary, or in pairs and family groups.
Common Merganser
Common Merganser: Large, sleek diving duck with black upperparts and white underparts. Head and upper neck are green-black with head crest usually not visible. Long, thin bill is bright red. Wings are black with extensive white patches. Feeds on fish, mollusks, crustaceans, insects and plants.
Buff-breasted Sandpiper
Buff-breasted Sandpiper: This medium-sized sandpiper has a buff wash over the entire body except for the white vent. It has black-spotted and streaked upperparts, slightly scaled underparts, a white eye ring, black bill and yellow legs. It feeds mostly on insects. It has a swift direct flight with rapid wing beats. It shows white wing linings in flight. The sexes are similar.
Semipalmated Plover
Semipalmated Plover: This small plover has gray-brown upperparts, white underparts, a black face, collar and forehead and a faint stripe sometimes seen over the eye. It has a black-tipped orange bill, orange legs and feet and a brown tail with white edges. Wings have white stripes visible in flight. Feeds on insects, larvae and other invertebrates. Strong direct flight. Sexes are similar.
Hudsonian Godwit
Hudsonian Godwit: Large sandpiper with white-scaled, brown-black upperparts, black-barred chestnut-brown underparts. Long bill, slightly upcurved and pink with black tip. White rump, white wing-bar, black underwings visible in flight. Legs and feet are blue-gray. Swift, powerful undulating flight.
Herring Gull
Herring Gull: This large gull has a pale gray back, black-tipped wings, a white head, neck, breast, tail and underparts. The bill is yellow with a red spot near the tip; legs are pink. Diet includes marine invertebrates, fish and insects. It has a strong steady flight with deep wing beats and soars on thermals and updrafts. The males are larger than females; the sexes have similar plumage.
Common Tern
Common Tern: This medium-sized tern has medium gray upperparts, pale gray underparts and a glossy black cap and nape. The wings are dark-tipped with a dark leading edge on the forewing. The red bill is black-tipped, legs are red, and the tail is deeply forked and elongated. It has a direct flight, hovering above water before diving for prey. Feeds mainly on small marine fish. Sexes are similar.
Long-billed Dowitcher
Long-billed Dowitcher: This large, stocky sandpiper has dark, mottled upperparts, dark cap and eye stripe, short white eyebrow, and red-brown underparts with lightly barred flanks. The bill is long, dark and dagger-like, and the legs and feet are yellow-green. It feeds on insects and insect larvae, mollusks, crustaceans and marine worms. Swift direct flight, rapid wing beats. Sexes are similar.
Lesser Yellowlegs
Lesser Yellowlegs: This large sandpiper has gray and black mottled upperparts, white underparts, and streaked upper breast and sides. The bill is straight and uniformly dark gray. The white lower rump and dark-barred tail are visible in flight. The legs are long and yellow. It feeds on aquatic and terrestrial invertebrates. It has a swift direct flight with rapid wing beats. Sexes are similar.
Iceland Gull
Iceland Gull: Large, white gull, pale, pearl-gray back and upper wings. Bill is yellow, red spot at tip of lower mandible. Wing tips sometimes marked with pale to dark gray. White tail; legs and feet are pink. Direct flight with strong deep wing beats. Soars on thermals and updrafts.
Caspian Tern
Caspian Tern: This large stocky tern has pale gray upperparts and white underparts. The cap is black and may appear weakly crested. The large bill is coral-red, the undersides of the primaries are gray, a short white tail is slightly forked, and the legs are black. The flight is strong, swift and graceful. It hovers above water before diving and mainly feeds on fish. The sexes are similar.
Arctic Tern
Arctic Tern: This is a medium-sized, slim tern with gray upperparts, black cap, a white rump and throat, and pale gray underparts. The tail is deeply forked and white with dark edged outer feathers. The bill is dark red. The legs and feet are red. It has a buoyant, graceful flight with steady wing beats. It feeds on small fish, crustaceans and insects. Both sexes are similar in appearance.
King Eider
King Eider: Large diving duck with black body and white breast, back. The crown and nape are pale blue; distinct bill is orange-red, sweeping upward into a large, orange basal knob outlined in black. Wings are black with large white patches visible in flight. Tail has white patches at the base.
Northern Shrike
Northern Shrike: Medium shrike with gray upperparts,pale gray underparts. Mask is black with white border, bill is heavy and slightly hooked. Wings are black with white patches. Tail is long, black, and white-edged. Legs and feet are black. Flight is swift and undulating on shallow rapid wing beats.
Bonaparte's Gull
Bonaparte's Gull: This is a medium-sized gull with a black head and bill, gray back and wings and white underparts and tail. White outer primaries with black trailing edges are visible in flight. The legs are red-orange. It catches fish by wading and diving. It has a light and direct flight with rapid wing beats. It feeds mainly on insects, which it catches in mid-flight. The sexes are similar.
Black-legged Kittiwake
Black-legged Kittiwake: This is a medium-sized white gull with pale gray back and upperwings and black wing tips. The bill is yellow and the legs and feet are black. It has a swift, graceful flight, alternating several rapid shallow wing beats with a glide. Hovers over water before diving for prey at the surface. It feeds on marine invertebrates, plankton and fish. The sexes look very similar.
Black Tern
Black Tern: This small tern has a black head, bill and underparts. The back, wings and tail are silver-gray, and the vent is white. The legs and feet are dark red but may appear black. It has a buoyant, direct flight with deep rapid wing beats. It hovers for insects in an uneven foraging flight. It plunge dives on occasion. The sexes appear similar.
Blue-winged Teal
Blue-winged Teal: This small dabbling duck has a purple-gray head and a distinct white crescent on the face. The upperparts are scaled buff and dark brown; underparts are pale brown with many dark spots. The wings have a green speculum and a pale blue shoulder patch visible in flight. Flight is fast and direct with steady wing beats. It mainly feeds on plants. The sexes look similar.
Magnolia Warbler
Magnolia Warbler: Medium-sized warbler with dark back, yellow rump, and black-streaked yellow underparts. The head has a blue-gray crown, yellow throat. Wings are dark with two white bars. Tail is dark with white patches and undertail coverts. Bill, legs and feet are black.
Blackpoll Warbler
Blackpoll Warbler: Medium-sized warbler with black-streaked, gray upperparts, white underparts, and black-streaked white sides. Head has black cap and prominent white cheek patch. Bill is black. Wings are dark with two white bars. Pink legs and feet. Swift, direct flight with rapidly beating wings.
Ovenbird
Ovenbird: Medium, ground walking warbler, olive-brown upperparts, heavily spotted white underparts. Head has dull orange central crown stripe edged in black, and a white eye-ring. Wings, tail are olive-green. Name is from its covered nest, the dome and side entrance make it resemble a dutch oven.
Tennessee Warbler
Tennessee Warbler: Small warbler with olive-green upperparts, white underparts, and olive-gray washed sides. Darker head has white eyebrows and dark eyestripes. Wings are plain gray. Tail is short. It spends the summers in Canada and is only found in Tennessee during migration. Eats mostly insects.
Palm Warbler
Palm Warbler: Medium warbler with olive-brown upperparts and yellow underparts streaked with brown. Cap is chestnut-brown. Western form is grayer overall and has white belly. It pumps its tail up and down more than any other warbler. Despite its name, it lives further north than most other warblers.
Dusky Flycatcher
Dusky Flycatcher: Small flycatcher with olive-gray upperparts and white or yellow tinged underparts. The upper breast has a pale olive wash. Eye has faint eye-ring. Bill is black except for orange base of lower mandible. The legs and feet are black. Weak fluttering flight with shallow wing beats.
Pine Grosbeak
Pine Grosbeak: Large, robust finch with red-washed black back, gray sides and undertail coverts, and pink-red rump and underparts. Head and face are pink-red; bill is heavy and black. Wings are black with two pale bars. Tail is black and slightly notched. Feeds on seeds, buds, fruits and insects.
Trumpeter Swan
Trumpeter Swan: Largest swan in the world, completely white but with head and neck often stained rust-brown from contact with ferrous minerals in wetland soils. Bill, legs, and feet are black. Feeds on aquatic plants. Strong direct flight on steady wing beats. Flies in straight line or V formation.
Snow Goose
Snow Goose: This large goose has two color phases. The White phase is all white with black wing tips. The Blue phase has a white head and neck, blue-gray upperparts, gray-brown breast and sides, white belly, pink bill, legs and feet and black lower mandible. Sexes are identical within each phase. Diet includes pasture grasses and grains. Strong direct flight in bunched flocks or U formations.
Ross's Goose
Ross's Goose: Small, white goose with black primary feathers and stubby gray-based red-orange bill. Red-orange legs and feet. Eats mostly fresh grasses and grains, often in the company of Snow Geese. Rapid direct flight with strong wing beats. Flies in a V formation. North America's smallest goose.
Gray-crowned Rosy-Finch
Gray-crowned Rosy-Finch: Medium finch with brown body and pink on shoulders, flanks, and belly. Forehead is dark brown. The black bill turns yellow with a dark tip in the winter. Back of head and belly have gray patches. Forages in bushes, trees and on ground for seeds and insects. Bounding flight.
White-winged Scoter
White-winged Scoter: Medium sea duck, mostly black except for white eye patches, large white wing patches. Bill is orange with large black basal knob. Red-orange legs, feet. Dives to 40 feet, feeds primarily on shellfish. Direct flight with steady wing beats. Flies in straight line or V formation.
Tundra Swan
Tundra Swan: This small swan is completely snowy white. Its head and neck is often stained rust-brown from ferrous minerals in marsh soils. It has a black bill with a yellow spot at the base and black legs and feet. Diet includes aquatic vegetation and grass. Strong direct flight on steady wing beats. Flies in straight line or V formation. Most common swan in North America. Sexes are similar.
Long-tailed Duck
Long-tailed Duck: This small duck has black upperparts, head, neck, breast and wings; brown mottled black back, white flanks, belly, under tail coverts. Long black tail with long slender feathers, pale gray mask and black bill with dark pink saddle. Feeds on aquatic insects. Female is duller, lacks long tail, and has gray bill. Swift direct flight often with erratic side-to-side turns of body.
Redhead
Redhead: This medium-sized diving duck has a gray back and sides, black upper back, breast, rump and tail, and white belly. The head and neck are rufous-brown, and the blue-gray bill is black-tipped; eyes are yellow. Females are duller and browner, with a light area around the base of the bill. Feeds mostly on aquatic vegetation. Rapid direct flight with strong wing beats, flies in V formation.
American Golden-Plover
American Golden-Plover: Medium sandpiper with black face, underparts. Back is dark brown with yellow spots; has a white S-shaped mark along head and sides. Markings provide camouflage to blend in with tundra breeding grounds. Bill is black, thin, and short. Swift direct flight on rapid wing beats.
Barrow's Goldeneye
Barrow's Goldeneye: Medium diving duck with black upperparts, contrasting white shoulder bars, white underparts. Head is large, glossy, and purple-black with golden yellow eyes and a crescent-shaped white patch behind a dark bill. White wing patches are visible in flight. Yellow legs and feet.
Say's Phoebe
Say's Phoebe: Medium-sized, active flycatcher with gray-brown upperparts and head, paler gray throat and upper breast, and pale rufous belly and undertail coverts. The wings and tail are dark gray. Feeds primarily on insects. Weak fluttering flight with shallow wing beats. Hawks from perch, hovers.
Common Nighthawk
Common Nighthawk: Medium nightjar with white-speckled, dark upperparts, black-and-white barred underparts, mottled breast, white throat. Wings are long, dark gray with white bars, nearly covering tail when folded. Gray-brown legs and feet. Darting erratic flight with frequent changes of direction.
Harlequin Duck
Harlequin Duck: Small diving duck, blue-gray upperparts and underparts, rust-brown flanks. Back, breast and neck have vivid black-bordered white bars. Tail is dark and relatively long. Gray legs, feet. Feeds on insects, mollusks and crustaceans. Rapid direct flight, often low over the water.
Green-winged Teal
Green-winged Teal: This small dabbling duck has pale, gray-barred sides and a buff breast with a white bar down the side. The head is chestnut-brown with a green ear patch, the bill is dark gray, and the legs and feet are olive-gray. The speculum is flashy green bordered with brown above and white below. Diet includes seeds, insects and grasses. Flight is often low and erratic.
Hammond's Flycatcher
Hammond's Flycatcher: Small flycatcher, gray upperparts, gray-brown underparts, white eye-ring. Throat is pale gray, belly is pale yellow. Wings are dark with two pale bars. Feeds on insects. Black legs and feet. Weak fluttering direct flight with shallow wing beats. Sallies to take insects in air.
Yellow Warbler
Yellow Warbler: Small warbler with olive-yellow upperparts and bright yellow underparts with rust-brown streaks on breast, sides. Wings are dark. Tail is dark with yellow-tinged edges. Female lacks streaks on breast. The Golden group has an olive-brown crown and is found in the Florida Keys and West Indies. The Mangrove group has a rufous hood and is found in Central America and northern South America. Has a wider range than any other North American warbler. Eats insects, larvae, and some fruit.
Red Crossbill
Red Crossbill: Medium finch with red-orange body, brighter red rump, and dark brown wings. Bill is dark and crossed at tip. The tail is notched. Legs and feet are gray-black. Eats seeds, insects and caterpillars. Swift bounding flight, alternates rapid wing beats with wings pulled briefly to sides.
Red-breasted Nuthatch
Red-breasted Nuthatch: Medium nuthatch with blue-gray upperparts and pale rust-brown underparts. Head has a black cap, white eyebrow, black eyestripe; throat is white. Bill is slightly upturned. Legs and feet are black. Weak fluttering flight, alternates rapid wing beats with wings drawn to sides.
Bay-breasted Warbler
Bay-breasted Warbler: Medium-sized warbler with dark-streaked gray upperparts and buff underparts with chestnut-brown patches on the chin, throat, breast and flanks. The head has a dark brown crown and black mask. Wings are black with two white bars. It is one of the largest warblers.
Long-tailed Jaeger
Long-tailed Jaeger: Smallest but most buoyant and graceful jaeger or skua, with gray upperparts, white breast and gray belly. Black cap covers eyes, crosses chin and ends at yellow nape. Upperwings are dark edged. Tail is gray with black edges and long black streamers. Legs are blue-gray and toes are webbed. Sexes are similar. Juvenile is heavily barred and spotted gray; has white patches on underwings, white throat, white belly and dark-tipped gray bill. Dark juvenile is darker overall; has gray throat and lacks white belly.
Wilson's Snipe
Wilson's Snipe: This medium-sized sandpiper has brown and black mottled upperparts, buff striped back, white underparts, dark bars on sides and flanks, heavily streaked head, neck and breast, and yellow-green legs and feet. Feeds on insects and earthworms. Zigzag flight on takeoff, followed by direct flight with rapid wing beats. Sexes are similar.
Eastern Phoebe
Eastern Phoebe: Small flycatcher with dark gray-brown upperparts and slightly darker wings and tail. Underparts are pale with hint of olive-brown or yellow on sides and breast. Bill, legs, and feet are black. Feeds on insects, small fish, berries and fruit. Weak fluttering bouyant flight.
Least Flycatcher
Least Flycatcher: Small flycatcher with olive-gray upperparts, gray breast, and pale yellow belly. Eye-ring is white. The bill has pale lower mandible with dark tip. Legs and feet are black. Feeds on insects, spiders, berries and seeds. Weak fluttering direct flight with shallow wing beats.
Philadelphia Vireo
Philadelphia Vireo: Medium vireo with olive-green upperparts and yellow-washed to yellow underparts. The head has a gray cap, dark eyes, and white-bordered black eye-line. Wings are olive-green with very faint wing-bars. Undertail coverts yellow. First discovered near Philadelphia in 1842.
Horned Lark
Horned Lark: Medium-sized lark with pale or dark brown upperparts and white underparts. Face and throat are pale yellow to white and mask, cap, and ear tufts are black. Tail is dark with white edges. Forages on ground, usually in open fields. Eats seeds, grains, insects and small mollusks.
Yellow-bellied Flycatcher
Yellow-bellied Flycatcher: Small flycatcher with olive-green upperparts, yellow underparts, and olive-green wash on breast. Spectacles are pale yellow. The wings are dark with two white bars. Feeds on a variety of insects and spiders. Weak fluttering flight with shallow rapid wing beats.
Black-capped Chickadee
Black-capped Chickadee: Medium-sized, stocky chickadee with pale gray upperparts and breast and pale olive-brown underparts. The black cap and bib and white cheeks are conspicuous. Black bill is short and thin. Wings are dark with broad white edges on feathers. State bird of Maine and Massachusetts.
Vesper Sparrow
Vesper Sparrow: Medium sparrow, black-streaked gray-brown upperparts, white underparts, and streaked breast and sides. White face has brown cheek patch and white eye-ring. Wings are gray-brown with two pale bars and rufous shoulder patches. Tail is notched and dark with white edges.
Sharp-tailed Grouse
Sharp-tailed Grouse: Medium grouse with lightly barred brown upperparts and white underparts dotted with chevrons. Head has short crest, yellow-orange eye comb, and pink or violet neck patch exposed when displaying. Tail is pointed and white-edged. Often seen on prairies in the summer.
White-throated Sparrow
White-throated Sparrow: Medium-sized sparrow with rust-brown striped upperparts, conspicuous white throat, and plain gray underparts. Head has black-and-white striped crown and yellow spots between eyes and bill. Short flights, alternates rapid wing beats with wings pulled to sides.
American Tree Sparrow
American Tree Sparrow: Medium, gray-brown sparrow, black and rufous-brown streaks on back, wings. Crown, eyestripes, flanks are rufous-brown, contrasting with gray face. Pale gray breast with dark central spot, rufous-brown sides. Upper mandible is dark gray, lower mandible is yellow.
Alder Flycatcher
Alder Flycatcher: Small flycatcher with olive-brown upperparts, white underparts, and indistinct white eye-ring. Wings are olive-brown with two white or pale bars. Bill is short with orange lower mandible. Black legs and feet. Weak fluttering direct flight with shallow, rapid wing beats.
Red Phalarope
Red Phalarope: This medium-sized sandpiper has dark gray upperparts and rufous neck and underparts. It has a white face, black cap, and a thick, straight, yellow bill with a black tip. The female is more brightly colored than the male. Feeds on small fish, insects and aquatic invertebrates. Flight is swift and direct with rapid wing beats.
Spruce Grouse
Spruce Grouse: Medium grouse with barred, dark gray-brown upperparts, black underparts show white bars on breast, white chevrons on sides, belly. Throat is white-bordered black; red eye combs. Tail is either black with fine white spots near base (Franklin's) or black with rufous-brown tip (Tiaga).
Rock Ptarmigan
Rock Ptarmigan: Small grouse with black, brown, and buff mottled upperparts, white underparts with variable dark mottling, and white wings. Head shows a dark eyestripe. Red combs over the eyes can be retracted or exposed. It has feathers on legs and toes to help it walk in the snow and stay warm.
Ivory Gull
Ivory Gull: A pure white gull whose entire life is restricted to the edge of the floating pack ice. Legs dark, bill dusky with yellow tip. It eats fish, insects, lemmings and crustaceans, and is also an active scavenger. Bouyant, graceful flight. Often flies with feet trailing and dangling below.
Yellow-rumped (Myrtle) Warbler
Yellow-rumped (Myrtle) Warbler: Medium warbler, dark-streaked, blue-gray upperparts, yellow rump. White throat and belly, breast white and black streaked, yellow patches on the sides. Head gray with yellow crown, white crescent under eyes, white supercilium, black lores and cheeks. Dark wings with two white bars. Tail is dark with white corners.
Cackling Goose
Cackling Goose: This small to medium-sized goose has a mottled gray-brown body, black legs, tail, neck, head and face, with a white chin strap stretching from ear to ear and a white rump band. The bill is small and triangular. It eats a variety of plant species and parts, especially grasses, sedges, grain and berries. Strong deep wing beats. Sexes are similar; the male is larger.
Common Eider
Common Eider: Large diving duck (v-nigrum), with distinctive sloping forehead, black body, white breast and back. Crown is black and nape is pale green. Wings are white with black primary and secondary feathers. Tail and rump are black. Bill is dull yellow to gray-green (eastern) or orange-yellow (western).
Boreal Chickadee
Boreal Chickadee: Large chickadee, brown upperparts, dark brown cap, small black bib, gray face and neck, white cheek, rufous sides, white underparts. Gray wings, tail. Short, weak flights on rapidly beating wings. Alternates several quick, shallow strokes with wings pulled to sides.
White-winged Crossbill
White-winged Crossbill: Medium crossbill, bright pink overall except for black wings with two bold white wing-bars. Belly has dull white center; white undertail coverts. Black tail, deeply notched. Swift bounding flight, alternates rapid wing beats with wings pulled to sides.
Hoary Redpoll
Hoary Redpoll: Small finch (exilipes), buff-gray, brown-streaked upperparts and brown-streaked white underparts washed pink. Head has red cap, black chin patch. Black wings with two white bars. Rump is pale gray or white with few or no streaks. Black tail is notched. Black legs and feet.
Common Redpoll
Common Redpoll: Small finch, brown-streaked gray upperparts, bright rose-pink breast, boldly streaked flanks and undertail coverts. Red cap and black chin. Bill is olive-brown with fine black tip. Wings are dark with two narrow white bars; tail is black and notched. Black legs, feet.
Townsend's Solitaire
Townsend's Solitaire: Small thrush, gray overall and slightly darker above. Eye-ring is thin and white. The wings have pale rust-brown patches and black flight feathers. Outer tail feathers are white. Perches upright and remains still for long periods of time and is easily overlooked.
Eastern Yellow Wagtail
Eastern Yellow Wagtail: Small wagtail (tschutschensis), olive-green upperparts, yellow underparts with brown spots on sides of breast. White throat with faint brown necklace. Gray head has black ear patches, white eyebrows. Dark wings with two white bars. Black tail with white edges.
Bohemian Waxwing
Bohemian Waxwing: Large waxwing with gray upperparts, pink-gray crest, black mask and chin, and gray underparts. The wings are black with a sharp yellow or white line and red spots on secondaries (visible when folded). Tail is dark and yellow-tipped with cinnamon-brown undertail coverts.
Smith's Longspur
Smith's Longspur: Medium sparrow, yellow-brown streaked upperparts, black head with white eyebrow and ear patch, and yellow-brown nape, throat, and underparts. Wings have large white bars. Tail is black with white edges. Yellow-brown legs and feet. Feeds on seeds, spiders, and insects.
Harris's Sparrow
Harris's Sparrow: Large sparrow with dark-streaked, brown upperparts and white underparts with dark-streaked sides. Head has stark black crown, face, and throat. Gray cheek patch is marked by a thin, black line. Bill is pink. Alternates rapid wing beats with brief periods of wings pulled to sides.
Common Grackle
Common Grackle: Medium-sized blackbird with metallic purple sheen on back, head, neck, and breast. Eyes are bright yellow. Central feathers of long, rounded tail are often lowered to show keeled V-shape. Swift, strong direct flight with rapid wing beats, holds tail folded in a V shape while flying.
Yellow Rail
Yellow Rail: Small rail with pale yellow-striped, dark brown upperparts. White throat, buff breast, flanks, and belly are barred black-and-white. Head has buff face with dark brown cap, eye patches. Bill is short, yellow. Wings are dark with large white patches visible in flight. Short black tail.
Nelson's Sparrow
Nelson's Sparrow: Small sparrow with brown streaked upperparts. Breast and sides are pale brown with pale streaks; throat, belly, and undertail coverts are white. Head has gray-brown crown and nape, orange-brown face, and gray cheeks. Tail is short and pointed. Pink-gray legs and feet.
Lincoln's Sparrow
Lincoln's Sparrow: Medium sparrow, dark-streaked pale brown upperparts, white underparts with dark streaks. Head has brown crown with gray central stripe, and nape, pale eye-ring, and brown streak extending behind eye. Upper mandible is dark, lower mandible is pale orange-brown.
Le Conte's Sparrow
Le Conte's Sparrow: Small sparrow, brown-streaked back, brown-streaked gray nape, pale gray underparts with streaks on sides, pale yellow breast. Head is flat with brown stripes. Face is pale yellow-orange with gray cheeks. Legs, feet are pink-brown.
Whimbrel
Whimbrel: This large long-legged sandpiper has brown and white mottled upperparts and buff underparts with faint streaks on sides and flanks. It has a white-striped black crown. Neck is long and streaked; long black decurved bill, blue-gray legs and feet. Tail and rump are brown and black barred. Diet includes insects and worms. Direct flight with strong fast wing beats. Sexes are similar.
Pomarine Jaeger
Pomarine Jaeger: The dar morph of this large jaeger is dark brown except for white patches near underwing tips and sides of under tail. Light morph has white neck, pale yellow collar, white lower breast, mottled breast band, sides. Thick bill, pale base, two long central feathers twisted vertically on tail. Diet includes fish and small birds. Strong steady flight with deep wing beats. Sexes are similar.
Pectoral Sandpiper
Pectoral Sandpiper: This medium-sized sandpiper has scaled, dark brown upperparts, heavily streaked brown breast, plain white belly and eye ring, dark brown crown, faint wing-bar and black rump with white edges that are visible in flight. Primarily feeds on arthropods and other invertebrates. Swift direct flight with rapid wing beats. Zigzag pattern when flushed. Sexes are similar.
Parasitic Jaeger
Parasitic Jaeger: The dark morph of this medium-sized jaeger has a brown body, darker cap and pale underwing patches near tips. Pale form has white underparts with brown breast band; intermediates between dark and light morphs occur. Diamond-shaped tail has elongated, pointed central feathers. Black bill, legs and feet. Alternates several deep flaps with glides and fast wing beats. Sexes are similar.
Sora
Sora: This small rail has dark gray-brown upperparts with black-and-white streaks, gray breast and dark gray flanks and belly with white bars. Gray head has a darker crown and nape and black face, chin and throat. It has a dark-tipped yellow bill. Low, weak and floppy flight over short distances with legs dangling. Feeds on seeds, grasses, insects and snails. Sexes are similar.
Sabine's Gull
Sabine's Gull: Small gull with gray back and white nape, rump, and underparts. Hood is solid black and eye-ring is dark red. Bill is black with yellow tip; legs and feet are black. The upperwings are gray with black primaries and white secondaries. Tail is slightly forked when folded.
Red-necked Phalarope
Red-necked Phalarope: This medium-sized sandpiper has a brown-striped dark gray back, mottled gray breast, white throat and belly, gray head, nape, and flanks, rust-brown neck and upper breast and a thin black bill. Females are larger and more brightly colored than males. Diet includes insects and crustaceans. Flight is swift and swallow like, with rapid wing beats, quick movements and turns.
Snow Bunting
Snow Bunting: Medium-sized, strikingly white sparrow with black back, central tail, and wing tips. Bill, legs and feet are black. Forages on ground for seeds, insects, larvae and caterpillars. Swift flight, alternates rapidly beating wings with brief periods of wings pulled to sides.
Eastern Kingbird
Eastern Kingbird: Large flycatcher, blue-black back, wings, black tail with white terminal band, white underparts. Head is black, has inconspicuous red crown feathers visible when bird is displaying. Black bill, legs, feet. Fluttering stiff-winged direct flight with shallow wing beats.
Blue-headed Vireo
Blue-headed Vireo: Medium-sized vireo with olive-green upperparts, white underparts, and yellow flanks. Head has blue-gray hood, white spectacles, and white throat. The wings are dark with two white or pale yellow bars. Weak, fluttering flight with rapid wing beats. May hover briefly.
Swamp Sparrow
Swamp Sparrow: Small sparrow with dark-streaked brown upperparts, gray upper breast, and pale gray, faintly streaked underparts. Head has rust-brown cap with paler median stripe and gray face. The wings are rust-brown with black-and-white streaks. Eats seeds, insects. Pink legs, feet.
Savannah Sparrow
Savannah Sparrow: Small sparrow, dark-streaked, gray-brown upperparts, white underparts, heavy streaks on breast and sides. Head has a brown crown with pale central stripe and pale yellow or white eyebrows. Brown wings have two pale bars. Tail is short and notched. Pink legs and feet.
Lapland Longspur
Lapland Longspur: Medium sparrow-like bird, brown-streaked black back. Underparts are white, streaked black on sides, flanks. Crown, face, and throat are black; nape is red-brown. Broad white stripe from eye to sides of breast. Bill is yellow with dark tip. Tail is long, white edges.
Yellow-bellied Sapsucker
Yellow-bellied Sapsucker: Medium woodpecker, black-and-white mottled upperparts, white rump, yellow-washed white underparts. Red throat, black border. Red crown, black-and-white striped face, neck. Dark wings have white shoulder patch. Black tail has black-barred, white center stripe.
Willow Ptarmigan
Willow Ptarmigan: Small grouse, winter adult is all white with dark-edged tail and small orange-red eye combs. Summer bird has rust-brown upperparts, head, breast, white eye-ring, orange-red eye comb, white wings, belly, leg feathers; brown tail. Unlike other ptarmigans, the male stays with the female and defends its nest-it is known to attack anything that comes to close.
American Redstart
American Redstart: Medium, active warbler with black upperparts and hood, distinctive orange-red patches on wings, sides, and long, fanned tail, and white underparts. Bill, legs, and feet are black. Female has gray head and gray-olive upperparts and white underparts with yellow on flanks and tail. It frequently flashes its colorful wings and tail to flush insects from foliage.
Rusty Blackbird
Rusty Blackbird: Medium blackbird, black overall with a dull, blue-green sheen, yellow eyes. Forages on ground of wet woodlands and fields, wades in marshes or small pools of water. Feeds on insects, caterpillars, snails, crustaceans, small fish, salamanders, fruits, grains and seeds.
Mountain Bluebird
Mountain Bluebird: Small thrush with brilliant blue back, head, and wings. Throat and breast are paler blue, and belly and undertail coverts are white. Female is gray overall with blue wings, rump, and tail. Hovers more than other bluebirds and drops on prey from above, also catches insects in flight. Eats mostly insects in the summer.
Red-eyed Vireo
Red-eyed Vireo: Medium vireo with olive-brown upperparts and white underparts. Head has a gray cap, white eyebrow, black eyestripe, and red eyes. Blue-gray legs and feet. Alternates short glides with series of rapid wingbeats. May hover briefly to pick berries or insects from foliage.
White-tailed Ptarmigan
White-tailed Ptarmigan: Small grouse, mottled brown overall, white on wings, breast, belly, red eye comb, white-edged brown tail, legs covered with white feathers. It is the smallest of the ptarmigans, and the only one that nests south of Canada. Lives most of its life above timberline.
Greater White-fronted Goose
Greater White-fronted Goose: This medium-sized goose has a dark-brown body and the underparts are barred and flecked with black. The belly and under tail coverts are white. The front of the face has a white patch and the bill is usually pink-orange. The legs are orange. It feeds on seeds, grain, grasses and berries. It has a steady direct flight with rapid wing beats. The sexes are similar.
Northern Pintail
Northern Pintail: This large duck has gray and black upperparts, white neck and underparts, gray sides, long black pointed tail, brown head, throat and nape. White stripe divides front and back of neck, green speculum is bordered by buff. Feeds on seeds and aquatic insects. Females are mottled brown all over with slim, tan head, long neck and a shorter tail. Direct flight with rapid wing beats.
Mallard
Mallard: This medium-sized duck has a gray body, chestnut-brown breast, green head, white neck ring, yellow bill, wing speculum is white-bordered metallic purple-blue, white edged dark tail, two curled black feathers, and orange legs and feet. Feeds on insects and crustaceans. Females are mottled brown with orange-brown bills and no curled tail feathers. Swift direct flight with strong wing beats.
Canada Goose
Canada Goose: This long-necked goose has a large gray-brown body, large webbed feet and a wide flat bill. It has dark upperparts, paler underparts, a white vent, cheeks and chinstrap, and a black head and neck. Strong deep wing beats. Strong powerful direct flight. Flies in a in V formation in migration. Feeds on grasses, sedges, berries and seeds. Sexes are similar, but males are larger.
Ring-necked Duck
Ring-necked Duck: This medium-sized diving duck has black upperparts, a weakly tufted, purple-black head, black neck, upper breast and tail, cinnamon collar, white lower breast and belly, pale gray sides, and a blue-gray bill with a white ring near the black tip. Female is drab brown with white eye ring. Feeds on submerged plants and aquatic invertebrates. Direct flight with rapid wing beats.
American Wigeon
American Wigeon: This is a medium-sized duck with a brown body, white crown, a large green ear patch extending to the back of the head, buff washed breast and sides and a white belly. It has a swift direct flight with strong wing beats. Shoulder patches are visible in flight. It has a black-tipped pale blue bill. It feeds on aquatic plants, insects and mollusks.
Lesser Scaup
Lesser Scaup: Medium-sized diving duck has finely barred gray back and gray-washed white underparts. Head, neck and breast are black with purple gloss. It has yellow eyes, blue-gray bill, black tail and black wings with white patches. Females are chocolate brown with lighter sides, red-brown head and white patch at base of dark gray bill. Feeds on crustaceans, mollusks, small fish, seeds and vegetative plants. Swift direct flight with rapid wing beats.
House Sparrow
House Sparrow: This medium-sized stocky sparrow has black-streaked brown upperparts, pale gray underparts, brown wings with a single white bar, pale gray cheeks and crown, black throat, upper breast, and a short, thick, black conical bill. Female lacks black and is pale gray-brown overall with buff eyebrows. Feeds mostly on grains and seeds. Agile fliers with an undulating flight pattern.
Double-crested Cormorant
Double-crested Cormorant: Medium cormorant with iridescent black body and orange throat pouch. Western birds have white feather tufts over each eye in early summer. Pale bill is long and hooked. Black legs and feet. Feeds on fish, amphibians and crustaceans. Strong direct flight, soars on thermals.
Common Loon
Common Loon: Large loon, white-spotted, black upperparts and white underparts. Head, neck are green-black with white-streaked neckbands. Bill is black and thick. Eyes are red-brown. Dives for small fish and crustaceans. Direct flight on strong deep wing beats, head, neck and feet extend beyond body.
American Coot
American Coot: Medium-sized, chicken-like swimming bird, dark gray to black overall, short, white bill and undertail coverts. Toes are lobed, not webbed. Upper edge of frontal shield is red, but usually only visible at close range. Swift direct flight with rapid wing beats, feet protrude past tail.
Pine Siskin
Pine Siskin: Small finch with brown-streaked body. Wings have small patches of yellow and two white wing-bars. Tail is dark, notched, and has small yellow patches. Bill is slender and pointed. Forages on ground and in trees for seeds and insects. Flight is swift and high, travels in compact flocks.
Gray Jay
Gray Jay: Medium-sized, fluffy, crestless jay with gray upperparts, paler underparts, and a short bill. Tail is long and white-tipped. Feeds on insects, carrion, refuse, seed, nuts, berries, mice, eggs and young of other birds. Light and bouyant flight on steady wing beats. Glides between perches.
Horned Grebe
Horned Grebe: Small grebe, red-brown neck, breast and flanks, nearly black throat and back. Head has black cap, white face, conspicuous buff-orange to yellow ear plumes. Bill is dark with white tip, eyes are dark red. Feeds on aquatic insects, fish and crustaceans. Direct flight on rapid wing beats.
Common Goldeneye
Common Goldeneye: Medium diving duck, white-striped black upperparts, white underparts. Head is iridescent green-black with white circular patch between yellow eyes and dark gray bill. Wings are dark with large white patches conspicuous in flight. Legs and feet are yellow. Swift, direct flight.
Bufflehead
Bufflehead: This small diving duck is mostly white with a glossy green-black to purple-black head and back. The head has a large white patch behind eye. The wings are dark with white patches visible in flight. It feeds on aquatic plant seeds, and insects, larvae and snails. It has a swift direct flight with rapid wing beats.
Brown-headed Cowbird
Brown-headed Cowbird: Small blackbird with glossy brown head, heavy bill, and dark eyes. The black body has a faint green sheen. Walks on ground to forage and holds tail cocked over back. Feeds on caterpillars, insects, spiders, fruits, grains and seeds. Swift direct flight with rapid wing beats.
Ruby-crowned Kinglet
Ruby-crowned Kinglet: Medium kinglet, olive-green upperparts and olive-buff underparts. Head has inconspicuous tuft of red crown feathers and white eye rings. Wings are dark with two white bars. Tail is slightly notched and has white edges. Weak fluttering flight on shallow wing beats.
Ruddy Duck
Ruddy Duck: This small, bright red-brown duck has a black cap extending below the eyes onto the nape, heavy blue bill and black tail. Some males have an all black head lacking white cheek patches. Females have a gray-brown neck and body, dull buff-brown head and neck sides, with a stripe across pale-gray cheek patch. Feeds on aquatic invertebrates and vegetation. Direct flight on rapid wing beats.
Red-breasted Merganser
Red-breasted Merganser: This medium-sized diving duck has black upperparts, gray sides, rust-brown breast, white belly, green head, double crests and neck, and white neck ring. The long thin bill, legs and feet are bright orange. Females are brown-gray with gray-washed, red-brown head, double crest and white breast and belly. Feeds mostly on small fish. Swift direct flight with rapid wing beats.
Brewer's Blackbird
Brewer's Blackbird: Medium-sized blackbird with purple gloss on head and neck and green gloss on body and wings. Eyes are yellow. Follows farm tractors and plows. Forages on ground. Feeds on caterpillars, insects, fruits, seeds and grains. Strong, swift and direct flight with rapidly beating wings.
Canvasback
Canvasback: This is a large, flashy diving duck with a pale gray body, black breast and tail and gray legs and feet. The head is red-brown with a long sloping profile, a long dark bill and red eyes. It feeds primarily on aquatic plants. It has a rapid direct flight with strong wing beats and flies high, usually in V- formations.
Northern Shoveler
Northern Shoveler: This is a medium-sized dabbling duck with a large spoon-shaped bill. Males have a dark green head, dark bill, orange legs, yellow eyes, white breast and chestnut patch on the flanks; females are mottled light brown with orange-brown bill and legs and dark eyes. They feed mostly on aquatic plants and seeds. They have a strong direct flight with powerful rapid wing beats.
Surf Scoter
Surf Scoter: This medium-sized diving duck is entirely black except for white patches on the forehead and nape. It has an orange, black and white bill, white eyes and orange legs and feet. The female is less distinctly marked with smudgy face patches and dark bill. It dives for food, primarily mollusks and crustaceans. Rapid direct flight with strong wing beats. Flies in straight line formation.
Common Raven
Common Raven: Large raven with all-black body, large, stout bill, wedge-shaped tail. Eats invertebrates, vertebrates, insects, carrion, refuse, eggs and young of other birds, and rodents. Strong flight, alternates several deep wing beats with long glides on flat wings. Soars on thermals, updrafts.
American Crow
American Crow: Large, black bird with dark, stout bill, iridescent violet gloss on body, and blue-black wings. Tail is fan-shaped in flight. Eats insects, small invertebrates, amphibians, reptiles and mammals, eggs and young of other birds, grains, fruits, refuse, and carrion. Steady direct flight.
Killdeer
Killdeer: This large banded plover has brown upperparts, white underparts, two distinct black bands cross upper breast and white stripes on the wings that are visible in flight. The tail and rump show rust-brown in flight. It has a black bill, pink-brown legs and feet. Feeds primarily on insects. It has a wavering, erratic flight; capable of swift direct flight. Sexes are similar.
Pied-billed Grebe
Pied-billed Grebe: This medium-sized, stocky grebe has brown upperparts, paler brown underparts with barred sides and flanks and distinct white under tail coverts. It has a black chin, a white bill with a central black ring and dark eyes. Feeds on aquatic insects, vegetation, small fish and crustaceans. Direct flight with rapid wing beats. Sexes are similar.
Northern Harrier
Northern Harrier: This large hawk has gray upperparts, white rump, and white underparts with spotted breast. It has a dark hooked bill with a yellow base, yellow eyes, legs and feet. Long wings are gray above and white below with black tips. Females are brown above with varying degrees of brown and buff streaking below. Feeds mainly on small mammals. Alternates several deep wing beats with glides.
Golden Eagle
Golden Eagle: Large raptor with dark brown body and golden-brown feathers on back of head and nape. Eyes and bill are dark. Cere is yellow. Legs are completely feathered. Feet are yellow. Alternates deep slow wing beats with glides, soars on thermals. Has been clocked in a steep glide at 120 mph.
Bald Eagle
Bald Eagle: Large, hawk-like bird, dark brown body and white head, tail. Heavy bill, legs, feet, eyes are yellow. Hunts for fish, which it sometimes steals from ospreys. Eats carrion and crippled or injured squirrels, rabbits, muskrats and waterfowl. Flap-and-glide flight, also soars on thermals.
American Bittern
American Bittern: Medium, secretive, heron-like wading bird with stout body and neck, and relatively short legs. Upperparts are streaked brown and buff and underparts are white with brown streaks. Throat is white with black slashes on sides of neck. Strong direct flight with deep rapid wing beats.
Green Heron
Green Heron: This small heron has gray-green upperparts, chestnut brown head, neck, and upper breast, and a paler brown belly. It has a green-black cap with a small crest and a white throat. The neck has a white central stripe. The bill is two-toned with a dark upper mandible and yellow lower. During the breeding season bill is black. It is an opportunistic feeder with fish as the primary food source. Direct flight. Sexes are similar.
Great Blue Heron
Great Blue Heron: This large heron has a blue-gray back, black sides and a gray-and-white striped belly. The long neck is gray with a black-bordered white throat stripe. The head has a white face, cap and black crest. The upper mandible is dark and the lower is yellow. It mainly feeds on small fish but will take a variety of foods. It has a direct flight on steady wing beats. Sexes are similar.
Northern Hawk Owl
Northern Hawk Owl: Medium-sized, slender owl with white-spotted brown upperparts and brown-barred white underparts. The gray facial disk is partially bordered by a thick, brown stripe that extends to the upper breast; lacks ear tufts. Wings are long and relatively pointed. Tail is long and rounded.
Great Horned Owl
Great Horned Owl: Large owl with dark brown, gray-brown mottled upperparts and dark barred underparts. Head has distinct ear tufts and rufous facial disk. Throat and upper breast are white and may have dark spots. Northern birds are paler and grayer. Strong, silent, direct, flap and glide flight.
Great Gray Owl
Great Gray Owl: Large owl, dark gray body interspersed with bars and flecks of brown, pale gray, and white. Head is large and without ear tufts. Yellow eyes are relatively small. Bulky appearance when perching due to dense, fluffy plumage, long wings extending past body, and relatively long tail.
Barred Owl
Barred Owl: Medium, large-headed owl with large, brown eyes, concentric rings around pale face, no ear tufts. Upperparts are brown with white markings. Underparts are white with dark bars on breast and dark streaks on belly. Heavily streaked, spotted, and variegated brown, white, and buff overall.
Boreal Owl
Boreal Owl: Medium owl, white-spotted, brown upperparts and thick brown-streaked, white underparts. Head is black with numerous small white spots, facial disks bordered with black, eyes are yellow-orange. Short flights have rapid wingbeats, longer ones are bouyant with shallow, silent wing beats.
Snowy Owl
Snowy Owl: Large, white owl with variable black bars and spots. The head is round and lacks tufts, eyes are yellow, and the bill is black. Feathered feet and toes provide protection from the arctic cold. Direct flap-and-glide flight with powerful, deep wingbeats. North America's only all-white owl.
Short-eared Owl
Short-eared Owl: Medium owl, light and dark brown mottled upperparts and dark-streaked, pale buff underparts. Head has large, round, pale buff facial disk with fine, brown tinges, black around eyes, and small ear tufts. Eyes are yellow and bill is black. Flight is erratic with flopping wing beats.
American Kestrel
American Kestrel: Small North American Kestrel, has two distinct black facial stripes, rust-brown tail and back, slate-blue wings, black-spotted underparts. Female is brown-barred above with brown-streaked white underparts. Eats bats, rodents, insects, frogs, small reptiles, and birds. Alternates several rapid wing beats with glides, also hovers. Soars on thermals.
Merlin
Merlin: This small falcon has blue-gray upperparts, white to pale brown underparts with dark streaks, white throat, eye ring, and eyebrow, dark gray bill, brown or black barred tail with white tips. Pacific race is dark gray. Prairie race is light gray. Taiga race is a mixture. Females of all races are duller. Diet includes mostly small birds. Swift direct flight with rapid wing beats.
Prairie Falcon
Prairie Falcon: Medium falcon with brown upperparts, dark-spotted pale underparts, dark brown moustache stripe. Dark underwing-bars visible in flight. Feeds on small birds and mammals, and large insects. Swift flight with rapid wing beats. Sometimes alternates several rapid wing beats with a glide.
Belted Kingfisher
Belted Kingfisher: This medium-sized bird has a bushy crest, white collar and large, black dagger-like bill. It has blue-gray upperparts, white underparts and gray legs and feet. Males have one blue band across the white breast, while females have a blue and chestnut band. It hovers above water to search for prey such as crayfish and frogs. Slow direct flight with an erratic pattern.
Gyrfalcon
Gyrfalcon: Large northern falcon with three color morphs: dark, white, and gray. Dark morph is dark gray with pale streaks on throat and upper breast. White morph is white with dark spots and markings on wings, nape, and sides. Gray morph is a mix. The eyes, bill, and legs of all morphs are yellow.
Peregrine Falcon
Peregrine Falcon: This medium-sized falcon has blue-gray upperparts and heavily barred sides, belly and leggings. The breast may vary from white to spotted and barred. It has a black hood and sideburns, yellow fleshy eye ring, and yellow legs and feet. Feeds primarily on birds, which it takes in midair. Direct flight with rapid wing beats. Sexes look alike, but the female is a little bigger.
Whooping Crane
Whooping Crane: Adults are nearly all white except for red crown, black mask, and black primary feathers most visible in flight. The juvenile has rust-brown head and upper neck, and brown wash over mostly white body. Very rare bird; near extinction. Feeds on frogs, fish, mollusks, small mammals and crustaceans, grain and roots of water plants. Direct flight; slow downward wing beat and a powerful flick on the upbeat.
Red-tailed Hawk
Red-tailed Hawk: Large, highly variable hawk with brown upperparts, head and throat. The underparts are pale with brown streaks. Wings are pale below with dark bar at leading edge and dark tips. The tail is red-brown with dark terminal band. Legs and feet are yellow. Soars on thermals and updrafts.
Osprey
Osprey: This large raptor has dark brown upperparts, white underparts, faint breast band, small white head with dark crown, eye stripe and bill, gray legs and feet. Wings held at a distinct angle in flight, under wing showing barred flight feathers and diagnostic dark patches on the fore wing. Soars on thermals, deep slow wing beats alternating with glides. Feeds mainly on fish. Sexes similar.
Northern Goshawk
Northern Goshawk: The adults are slate blue-gray to nearly black upperparts with very finely barred and streaked pale gray underparts. Head is dark with thick, white eyebrows and red eyes. Tail is paler gray with three or four dark bands. Sexes are similar, although female is usually larger. The juvenile is browner overall with bright yellow eyes. Alternates rapid wing beats with glides; soars on thermals.
Sandhill Crane
Sandhill Crane: This large wading bird has a gray body, white cheeks, chin, and upper throat, and a bright red cap. It has a dark bill, yellow eyes and black legs and feet. It has a direct steady flight on heavy and labored wing beats, with a slow down stroke and a rapid and jerky upstroke. Flies in V or straight line formations. Diet is heavy in seeds and cultivated grains. Sexes are similar.
Sharp-shinned Hawk
Sharp-shinned Hawk: Small hawk with blue-gray upperparts and rufous bars on white underparts. Eyes are dark red. Wings are short and rounded. Tail is long and squared with heavy bars. Legs and feet are yellow. Flight consists of rapid wing beats followed by a short glide. Often soars on thermals.
Rough-legged Hawk
Rough-legged Hawk: This large hawk has brown upperparts, paler, streaked head, brown-spotted white breast, dark breast band, and fully feathered legs. The wings are pale below and dark-edged. The upper half of the tail is white, lower half is finely banded. It feeds on small mammals and some birds. Alternates powerful flaps with glides. Hangs in wind and hovers over one spot. Sexes are similar.
Winter Wren
Winter Wren: Tiny wren with barred, dark brown upperparts and pale eyebrows. Brown underparts heavily barred on flanks, belly, and undertail. Tail is short. Bill is dark brown. Legs and feet are brown. Only member of the wren family found outside the Americas, occuring in Europe, Asia, and Africa.
Western Wood-Pewee
Western Wood-Pewee: Medium-sized flycatcher with dull olive-gray upperparts and pale olive-gray underparts. Head has darker cap and slight crest. The wings are dark with two white bars. Feeds on insects, spiders and berries. Quiet and solitary. Weak fluttering flight with shallow rapid wing beats.
Western Sandpiper
Western Sandpiper: This small sandpiper has chestnut-brown, scaled upperparts, white underparts dotted with rows of dark chevrons, streaked head with brown wash on face, dark bill with decurved tip, thin white stripes visible on dark wings in flight, black legs and feet, and partial webbing between toes. Eats mostly flies and beetles. Swift direct flight with rapid wing beats. Sexes are similar.
Spotted Sandpiper
Spotted Sandpiper: This medium-sized sandpiper has olive-brown upperparts, white underparts with bold black spots, white eyebrow, barred tail and dull yellow legs. Wings have white stripes visible in flight. Low direct flight; wings flap in shallow arcs, producing clipped, stiff wing beats on drooping wings. Feeds mainly on small invertebrates such as midges and mayflies. Sexes are similar.
Dusky Grouse
Dusky Grouse: Large, chicken-like bird, dark gray to blue-gray plumage, red-orange eye combs, black squared tail with narrow pale gray terminal band. Patch of violet-red skin on neck surrounded by white feathers is displayed during courtship. Formerly (with Sooty Grouse) known as Blue Grouse.
Bank Swallow
Bank Swallow: Small swallow with brown upperparts, and a brown breast band seperating white underparts from white throat and chin. Tail is notched. Brown legs, feet. The smallest North American swallow. Swift, erratic flight, alternating several shallow, rapid wing beats with short to long glides.
Purple Martin
Purple Martin: Large, vocal swallow with glossy dark purple-blue body and forked tail. It is the largest North American swallow. Black bill, legs and feet. Stong, graceful flight, alternates a few rapid wing beats with long glides. Catches and eats insects in flight and also forages on the ground.
Sanderling
Sanderling: This medium-sized sandpiper has dark-spotted, rufous upperparts and breast, white underparts and black bill, legs and feet. Wings have conspicuous white stripes visible in flight. Feeds on crustaceans, mollusks, isopods, worms, plants and insects. Swift direct flight with rapid wing beats. Sexes are similar.
Purple Finch
Purple Finch: Medium finch, rose-red body, brown streaks on nape, back. Sides, flanks, belly are dull white with red wash; sides show thick, faint streaks. Brown wings, notched tail. Female is brown streaked overall. Eats seeds, fruits, insects and caterpillars. Swift flight, alternates rapid wing beats with wings pulled to sides.
Western Tanager
Western Tanager: Medium-sized tanager with brilliant red head, bright yellow body, black back, wings, and tail. Wings have two bars: upper bar is yellow, lower bar is white. Legs and feet are gray. Female is olive-green above, with gray back and yellow underparts. Swift direct flight on rapidly beating wings. It was first recorded on the Lewis and Clark expedition.
Violet-green Swallow
Violet-green Swallow: Small swallow, dark, metallic green upperparts, iridescent purple rump. Face, sides of rump, underparts are white. Tail is slightly forked. Black bill, legs and feet. Swift, graceful flight, alternates several quick wing beats with long glides. Soars on thermals and updrafts.
American Robin
American Robin: Large, familiar North American thrush, gray-brown upperparts, rich red-brown breast, and white lower belly and undertail coverts. Head appears black with white splotches surrounding the eyes, and throat is white with black streaks. Juvenile has heavily spotted underparts. Swift, direct flight on rapidly beating wings.
Rose-breasted Grosbeak
Rose-breasted Grosbeak: Large finch, black head, back, bright red breast, and white rump, sides, belly. The wings are black with white patches above and red, white, black below. Long, slightly notched black tail with white patches. Female has brown streaked upperparts, buff streaked underparts and yellow wing linings. Eats seeds, caterpillars, insects, tree flowers, fruits and berries.
Varied Thrush
Varied Thrush: Large thrush, dark gray upperparts, rust-brown throat, breast, sides, eyebrows, black breast band, and white belly and undertail. Wings are dark gray with two rust-brown bars. Tail is dark gray with white corners. Legs and feet are brown. Direct, swift flight on rapidly beating wings.
Clay-colored Sparrow
Clay-colored Sparrow: Medium sparrow with black-streaked brown upperparts and buff underparts. The face is pale with finely streaked crown, crisp brown cheek patch, white eyestripe, and gray nape. Pink-gray legs and feet. Short flight, alternates several rapid wing beats with wings pulled to sides.
Red-necked Grebe
Red-necked Grebe: This large grebe has dark gray upperparts and cap, white lower face and nape, white underparts with gray flanks, red-brown neck and dark brown eyes. It has a long thick yellow bill with a dark tip and black legs and feet. Dives for small fish and crustaceans. Direct flight on rapid wing beats. Sexes are similar.
American Pipit
American Pipit: Small pipit, gray-brown upperparts and pale buff underparts; breast is faintly to darkly streaked. Tail is dark with white edges. Black bill is thin and long. Legs and feet are black. It can be distinguished from sparrows by its longer bill and habit of wagging its tail up and down.
Brant
Brant: This small goose has dark brown upperparts and brown-barred, pale gray underparts. The head is black, and the short black neck has a partial white ring. The tail and vent are white. It has a heavy direct flight with strong wing beats. It flies in a straight line formation. It feeds on green plants including eel grass and sea lettuce. The sexes are similar.
Northern Waterthrush
Northern Waterthrush: Large, ground-walking warbler with dark brown upperparts and white to pale yellow underparts with dark, heavy streaks. Eyebrows are thick and vary from pale yellow to white. It flies swiftly in a direct line for short distances. Territorial in both its winter and summer ranges.
Cape May Warbler
Cape May Warbler: Small warbler, olive-yellow upperparts, thick, black streaks on yellow underparts. Bright yellow face, chestnut-brown ear patch, black crown. Wings are dark with large white patches. First collected in Cape May, New Jersey in 1811 and not seen again in that area for over 100 years.
Ring-necked Pheasant
Ring-necked Pheasant: This large chicken-like pheasant has a metallic-brown body, iridescent green head, white neck ring, red eye patch and wattles, and a long pointed tail. Female is pale brown overall with dark markings, has shorter tail and lacks wattle. Diet includes seeds and insects. Swift direct flight with strong wing beats. First introduced to California from Asia as a game bird in 1857.
Black-and-white Warbler
Black-and-white Warbler: Small, black-and-white striped warbler with a white median head stripe bordered by black. Black bill, legs and feet. It forages unlike any other warbler by moving up and down the trunks of trees and crawling under and over branches in a style similar to that of a nuthatch.
Ruffed Grouse
Ruffed Grouse: Medium-sized grouse with crested head and scaled brown upperparts. White underparts have pale brown bars on breast and dark brown bars on belly and flanks. Sides of neck have black ruff. The tail is brown with fine, white bars and white-edged dark band at tip. Northern form is grayer.
Chipping Sparrow
Chipping Sparrow: Medium, slender sparrow with black-streaked brown back and pale gray underparts. Cap is rufous, nape is gray, throat is white, and face stripes are black-and-white. Black bill. Pink-orange legs and feet. Short flight, alternates several rapid wing beats with wings pulled to sides.
Greater Yellowlegs
Greater Yellowlegs: This large sandpiper has mottled brown, gray and white upperparts. The underparts are white with dark streaks and spots. The bill is slightly upturned and the legs are long and yellow. Its long barred tail and white rump are conspicuous in flight. It feeds on insects, insect larvae and small fish. It has a swift direct flight, sometimes at great heights. Sexes are similar.
Short-billed Dowitcher
Short-billed Dowitcher: This large sandpiper has mottled gray, black, brown and red-brown upperparts, white rump, red-brown underparts with spots and bars, a long, straight dark bill and long, dark yellow-green legs. East and west coast birds are heavier barred and spotted, paler underparts and often show white bellies. Diet includes insects and crustaceans. Strong direct flight. Sexes similar.
Dunlin
Dunlin: This is a medium-sized bird with black-streaked, red-brown upperparts, a black belly patch and a streaked breast. The black bill is long and slightly decurved. The legs and feet are black. It wades in shallows and uses its bill to probe and pick up food. The diet includes marine worms, crustaceans and mollusks. It has a swift direct flight with rapid wing beats. The sexes are similar.
Barn Swallow
Barn Swallow: Medium swallow with glittering blue-black upperparts, red-brown forehead, chin and throat. Dark blue-black breast band, belly is white to orange. Tail is deeply forked with long outer streamers. Black legs and feet. It is the most abundant and widely distributed swallow in the world.
Song Sparrow
Song Sparrow: Medium sparrow, heavily streaked gray-brown upperparts. Dull white underparts have dark central breast spot, thick streaks. Head has brown crown, paler median stripe, pale gray eyebrow, white chin, dark brown moustache stripe. Rust-brown wings. Tail is long, usually tinged rust-brown.
Fox Sparrow
Fox Sparrow: Large sparrow, varies from dark or gray-brown in the west, rufous in the east; upperparts may be so dark that back pattern is hard to see. Heavily streaked upperparts, converging at midbreast into a large, dark spot. Rust-brown tail. Bill has dark upper mandible, yellow lower mandible.
Red-winged Blackbird
Red-winged Blackbird: Small blackbird with jet-black body and bright red shoulder patches edged with yellow on bottom. Runs or hops while foraging on the ground. Eats seeds, grains, berries, fruits, insects, caterpillars, spiders, snails, grubs and mollusks. Strong direct flight on rapid wing beats.
Orange-crowned Warbler
Orange-crowned Warbler: Small warbler with olive-green upperparts and faintly streaked, yellow underparts. The head has inconspicuous orange crown, broken eye-ring, and faint eye-line. Though it lives and nests in dense foliage close to the ground, the male perches at the tops of tall trees to sing.
Warbling Vireo
Warbling Vireo: Small vireo, gray to olive-gray upperparts, white underparts; sides sometimes washed with yellow. Eyes are dark brown, have thick, white eyebrows and faint, dark eye-lines. Gray wings and tail. Legs and feet are blue-gray. Has the largest breeding range of any North American vireo.
Hermit Thrush
Hermit Thrush: Small thrush, with olive-brown to red- or gray-brown upperparts, black-spotted white underparts and rufous tail. Distinct white eye-ring. Pink legs, feet. Swift direct flight, may hover briefly over prey. Considered to have one of the most beautiful songs of all North American birds. The state bird of Vermont.
Marsh Wren
Marsh Wren: Small wren with lightly barred, warm brown upperparts, black-and-white triangular patch on upper back, and dull white underparts with pale brown sides. Crown is dark and eyebrows are white. Tail is relatively short and dark-barred. Black bill is long and slender. Legs and feet are black.
Golden-crowned Sparrow
Golden-crowned Sparrow: Large sparrow, brown-streaked upperparts and plain gray breast. Yellow crown is bordered by a wide black cap; cheek and collar are black. Bill is gray. Wings are brown with two white bars. Short flights, alternates rapid wing beats with brief periods of wings pulled to sides.
White-crowned Sparrow
White-crowned Sparrow: Medium-sized sparrow with brown-streaked upperparts, small white throat patch, and plain gray underparts. The white crown has distinct black lines. Wings are brown with two pale bars. Short flights, alternates rapid wing beats with brief periods of the wings pulled to sides.
Dark-eyed Junco
Dark-eyed Junco: Medium-sized sparrow with considerable geographic color variation, although all exhibit a pink bill, dark eyes, white belly, and dark-centered tail with white outer feathers. Gray-headed form has gray head, rump, breast, and sides, and rust-brown back. Slate-colored form is slate-gray overall with darker head. Oregon form has black hood, chestnut-brown back and buff-brown flanks. White-winged form is blue-gray overall and shows two white wing bars. Pink-sided form is blue-gray with darker wings and pink-gray flanks. Female of each form resembles male but is usually paler. Juveniles of all forms are heavily streaked brown with darker heads, white bellies, and white outer tail feathers.
California Gull
California Gull: This is a medium-sized gull with a white head and underparts, gray wings and black wing tips. The bill and legs are yellow, and it has a red eyering. It has a strong direct flight with deep wing beats. It feeds on worms, mice, other birds and their eggs, and garbage. The sexes are similar, but the males are usually larger than females, with a larger bill, head and tarsi.
Glaucous Gull
Glaucous Gull: This large white gull has a pale gray back and yellow eyes. The bill is yellow with a red spot on the lower mandible. The wings are white-edged and white tipped; the legs and feet are pink. It is an active predator of seabird nesting colonies. Diet includes fish, insects and birds. It has slow steady wing beats and soars on thermals and updrafts. The sexes are similar.
Mew Gull
Mew Gull: Medium-sized gull with gray back and upperwings, and white head, neck, breast, and belly. Bill is bright yellow. Wings have white-spotted black tips; tail is white. Feet and legs are dull yellow. Graceful, bouyant flight. Undulating, with several rapid wingbeats and a pause.
Northern Flicker
Northern Flicker: Medium woodpecker, black-barred brown back, white rump, black tail. Underparts are black-spotted pale brown with black crescent on breast. Face is gray with brown crown and forehead. Legs and feet are gray. There is a Red-shafted (shown here) and a Yellow-shafted race.
Hairy Woodpecker
Hairy Woodpecker: Small woodpecker with black-and-white upperparts, white underparts. Head has red hindcrown patch. Face is white with black stripes.Tail is black with white outer tail feathers. Northwest birds have gray-brown breast, belly, and rump. Bill is long and black. Legs and feet are black.
Downy Woodpecker
Downy Woodpecker: The smallest woodpecker in North America. Has a white back, black nape and black wings with white spotting. Underparts are white. Face is white with black stripes. Hindcrown patch is red. Tail is black with black-spotted or barred white outer tail feathers. Bill is black and short.
Cliff Swallow
Cliff Swallow: Small, stocky swallow, dark blue-gray upperparts, pale orange-brown rump, buff underparts. Forehead is white or buff while throat, sides of face are orange-brown. Crown is blue-black, bill is short and black. Tail is dark and squared. Legs and feet are gray. Catches insects in flight.
Tree Swallow
Tree Swallow: Medium-sized swallow with iridescent blue-green upperparts and white underparts. The wings are dark gray and tail is dark and forked. Black bill, legs and feet. Swift, graceful flight, alternates slow, deep wing beats with short or long glides. Turns back sharply on insects it passes.
Pileated Woodpecker
Pileated Woodpecker: Large woodpecker with mostly black body and white wing linings which are visible in flight. The head has a prominent red crest and cap, white face and neck stripes and a red moustache stripe, and large gray bill. Legs and feet are gray. The largest woodpecker in North America.
Black-backed Woodpecker
Black-backed Woodpecker: Small woodpecker with black back, black wings with white spots on flight feathers, barred flanks, white underparts. Head has a conspicuous white cheek mark and yellow crown. Tail is black with white outer tail feathers. Black bill is long and stout. Legs and feet are gray.
Cedar Waxwing
Cedar Waxwing: Small waxwing, red-brown upperparts, pale slate-gray rump, buff underparts. Head is crested, has black mask with narrow white band below. Yellow-tipped tail, white undertail coverts. Wings have red wax-like tips on secondaries from which it gets its name. Black bill, legs and feet.
Wilson's Warbler
Wilson's Warbler: Small warbler with olive-green upperparts, bright yellow face and underparts, distinct black cap. It has a long, olive-brown tail which it moves up and down, or in a circular fashion, as it searches for food. It is more common in the West than in the East. Legs and feet are pink.
Common Yellowthroat
Common Yellowthroat: Small, skulking warbler with olive-yellow upperparts, bright yellow throat and breast, and pale gray belly. The head has a black mask with a thick white border above, black bill. Legs are pink. Slow weak flight, alternates periods of rapid wing beats with wings pulled to sides.
Black-bellied Plover
Black-bellied Plover: This medium-sized shorebird has black upperparts vividly marked with a white spot on each feather. It has a black face, throat and belly and white forehead and crown that extends over the eye, down the back and sides of the neck. Vent and wing stripe visible in flight. Strong direct flight with powerful rapid wing beats. Feeds on marine worms and insects. Sexes are similar.
Olive-sided Flycatcher
Olive-sided Flycatcher: Large, heavy-billed flycatcher with dark olive-brown upperparts, streaked olive-brown sides, and white underparts. Head has slight crest and faint white eye-ring. Wings are dark with two pale bars. Dark tail is relatively short, broad, and slightly notched. Black legs, feet.
European Starling
European Starling: Small, chunky, iridescent purple and green blackbird with long, pointed yellow bill, pink legs, and short tail. The feathers on back and undertail show buff edges. Feeds in open areas, normally on the ground. Strong, direct and swift flight on rapidly beating wings.