Tips for using Browse:

Browsing is a valuable way to learn about birds, however it is a brute force approach and not designed for identification. A more sophisticated approach to finding a bird with specific field marks is to use the Step by Step Search. You can also try the Wizard to find a bird, which uses a question and answer approach, but again it does not give you the flexibility of the Step by Step Search.

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Clay-colored Thrush
Clay-colored Thrush: Large thrush with olive-brown upperparts, buff throat has faint brown streaks, and pale brown underparts. Bill is yellow-green and black-tipped. The legs and feet are gray-black. Direct, swift flight on rapidly beating wings. It is the national bird of Costa Rica.
Eastern Screech-Owl
Eastern Screech-Owl Gray Morph: Small with gray-mottled upperparts, rows of white spots at shoulders, heavily streaked and barred underparts. Facial disk is lightly mottled with prominent dark rim. Small ear tufts. Yellow eyes, bill is yellow or olive-green. Short, rounded wings and tail are barred.
Island Scrub-Jay
Island Scrub-Jay: Medium-sized, crestless jay with gray-brown back and blue wings. Upper breast, throat, and chin are white with streaks. Head is blue with gray mask and narrow white eyebrow. Tail and undertail coverts are blue. Forages on ground. Flies with steady bouyant wing beats.
Northern Wheatear
Northern Wheatear: Small thrush (oenanthe), with gray upperparts, black wings, mask, and tail. Underparts are white, and buff-brown wash on throat. Dark gray back and nape. Very active bird, nervous and restless while foraging. Bobs tail and often makes short flights to hawk insects.
Stonechat
Stonechat: Small thrush with black back and white rump. Underparts are white except for orange breast. Head is black and collar is white. Wings are black with white stripes. Tail is black. Female is paler overall with brown head and buff rump. Found in open meadows and marsh edges. Forages for insects on ground; also picks off vegetation.
Redwing
Redwing: Medium-sized thrush with brown upperparts, dark-spotted white underparts, and rufous flanks. Eyebrows are white and conspicuous. Bill is yellow with black tip. Deep rufous-orange underwing linings are visible in flight. Swift and strong direct flight on rapidly beating wings.
Tamaulipas Crow
Tamaulipas Crow: Small crow, shiny black overall with purple-tinted upperparts and duller purple to blue-green tinted underparts. Bill is small and short. Feeds on grains, fruits, insects, carrion, refuse, and eggs and young of other birds. Rapid direct flight with steady wing beats.
Eurasian Skylark
Eurasian Skylark: This medium-sized lark has dark-streaked, brown upperparts and white underparts with streaks on the breast and sides, a dark edged tail, and indistinct crest on head. It forages on the ground by walking and running. Feeds mostly on seeds, grains and insects. They are renowned for their display flight and song. Alternates several rapid wing beats with short glides. Sexes are similar. Formerly called Sky Lark, name was changed to Eurasian Skylark in 2016 by the American Ornithologist Union.
Florida Scrub-Jay
Florida Scrub-Jay: Medium, crestless jay with gray upperparts and underparts, blue head, and pale eyebrows. Throat is gray and breast has blue-gray streaks. The wings and tail are blue. Bill, legs and feet are black. Direct flight with steady bouyant wing beats. Glides between perches.
Northern Red Bishop
Northern Red Bishop: Small weaver finch with bright orange-red body and black belly. The head has a black crown, face, and bill and the wings are brown. Orange-red uppertail coverts are very long and extend over the short, brown tail. Native to sub-Saharan Africa. Formerly known as the Orange Bishop, its name was changed by the American Ornithologist Union in 2016.
Cave Swallow
Cave Swallow: Small swallow (Southwest pelodoma), with steel-blue upperparts, white underparts, rufous wash on breast and sides. Forehead is chestnut-brown and throat and rump are buff. Tail is square. Swift, graceful flight, alternates several rapid, deep wing beats with long curving glides.
Bahama Swallow
Bahama Swallow: Medium-sized swallow with dark blue-green upperparts and cap extending below eye, and steel-blue wings, white chin, throat and underparts, and deeply forked tail. The bill, legs and feet are black. Swift, graceful flight, alternating rapid wing beats with long glides.
Pechora Pipit
Pechora Pipit: Small, shy pipit with heavily streaked, dark brown upperparts. The breast, sides, and flanks are washed yellow with heavy black streaks. Belly and outer tail feathers are white. It is named after the Pechora River Valley in northeastern Russia, where it breeds and nests.
Olive-backed Pipit
Olive-backed Pipit: Medium-sized pipit with finely streaked, olive-green upperparts. White underparts, chin, belly and undertail coverts. The sides and breast are pale brown with bold dark streaks. The eyebrow is buff-orange in front and white behind eye. The legs and feet are pink.
Swainson's Warbler
Swainson's Warbler: Medium-sized warbler with olive-brown upperparts and pale gray underparts. Head has brown cap, white eyebrows, and dark eye-lines. Wings are plain olive-brown. It hides in dense thickets, where it forages on the ground looking for insects, spiders, and caterpillars.
Eurasian Bullfinch
Eurasian Bullfinch: Small finch, gray back and white rump. Cap is black and cheeks, breast, belly are red. Wings are black with single white bar. Black tail is slightly notched. Feeds on seeds and insects. Swift bounding flight, alternates rapid wing beats with wings pulled to sides.
Eurasian Tree Sparrow
Eurasian Tree Sparrow: Small, introduced sparrow, black-streaked red-brown upperparts, buff underparts, single white wing-bar. Head has chestnut-brown crown, small black mask, chin, ear patches. Swift bounding flight, alternates rapid wing beats with periods of wings pulled to sides.
Hoary Redpoll
Hoary Redpoll: Small finch (exilipes), buff-gray, brown-streaked upperparts and brown-streaked white underparts washed pink. Head has red cap, black chin patch. Black wings with two white bars. Rump is pale gray or white with few or no streaks. Black tail is notched. Black legs and feet.
Bluethroat
Bluethroat: Small thrush with brown upperparts, striking blue bib with rust-brown central spot, black and brown-orange bands across breast, thick white eyebrow, and white underparts. Tail is dark with rust-brown base. Rather swift, deliberate direct flight on rapidly beating wings.
Siberian Rubythroat
Siberian Rubythroat: Medium-sized thrush with olive-brown upperparts, bright red throat, gray breast and sides, and white belly. Head has white stripes above and below eyes. Wings and tail are olive-brown. Often cocks tail upward. Forages on ground for various insects and berries.
Dusky Thrush
Dusky Thrush: Large thrush, brown back and rufous wings. Underparts are white with black scaling. Head is dark, eyebrow is thick and white. Bill is black with yellow base on lower mandible. Throat is white with black streaks and partial collar is white. Legs and feet are pink-brown.
Bendire's Thrasher
Bendire's Thrasher: Medium thrasher with olive-brown upperparts, spotted buff underparts. Bill is short, gray and slightly decurved with pale pink lower mandible base. Eyes are yellow-orange. Tail is long, olive-brown above, black with white tips below, and has brown undertail coverts.
Eastern Yellow Wagtail
Eastern Yellow Wagtail: Small wagtail (tschutschensis), olive-green upperparts, yellow underparts with brown spots on sides of breast. White throat with faint brown necklace. Gray head has black ear patches, white eyebrows. Dark wings with two white bars. Black tail with white edges.
Long-billed Thrasher
Long-billed Thrasher: Medium, shy thrasher with gray-washed brown upperparts and heavily streaked, pale underparts. Eyes are orange. Bill is long, black, and decurved. Wings have two white bars. Tail is long and rufous. Legs and feet are brown. Eats insects, small amphibians and fruit.
Blue-crowned Parakeet
Blue-crowned Parakeet: Medium-sized green parakeet with a blue head and red-orange highlights in long tail. White, feathless eye ring. The bill is bicolored with upper mandible pinkish and lower mandible is black (subspecies in northeastern Brazil has an all-pink bill). The legs and feet are pink.
Mitred Parakeet
Mitred Parakeet: This fairly large green parakeet has a red forehead grading into scattered bright red feathers on the crown, face, cheek, and at times on the bend in the wing. Its dull green underparts are faintly washed olive, the hooked bill is dull yellow, and the legs and feet are gray. It feeds on fruits, berries and nuts. It has a fast direct flight with rapid wing beats. Sexes are similar.
Red-masked Parakeet
Red-masked Parakeet: This fairly large green parakeet has bright red on the head, at the bend in the wing and on the thighs. It has a white eye ring, pink-beige hooked bill and gray legs and feet. It feeds on seeds and fruit. Fast direct flight with rapid wing beats. Sexes are similar. Considered threatened in its native range of Ecuador and Peru. AKA Red-masked Conure, Cherry-headed Conure.
Common Redshank
Common Redshank: Large sandpiper, scaled black and brown upperparts, dark-streaked neck and breast, white eye-ring broken in front, pale belly and sides with dark chevrons. Dark wings with white trailing edges visible in flight. Legs are orange-red. Short bill is red with black tip.
Inca Dove
Inca Dove: Small dove with scaled, pale gray-brown upperparts, white throat, and scaled, pale buff (often with pink wash) underparts. The tail is long and squared with a black-bordered gray center and edged in white. Black bill, pink legs and feet. Direct flight with rapid wing beats.
Ruddy Ground-Dove
Ruddy Ground-Dove: Small dove with rufous upperparts, pale pink-gray underparts, and pale gray head. Wings are rufous with black spots and bill is gray with a dark tip. Legs and feet are pink-gray. Forages on ground for seeds and berries. Fast low direct flight with rapid wing beats.
Gray-streaked Flycatcher
Gray-streaked Flycatcher: Small flycatcher with gray-brown upperparts and dark streaked white underparts. Tail is short and notched; wings are gray-brown with faint white wing bar. Undertail coverts are white. Face shows white eye-ring and distinct brown malar mark; throat is white. Bill is black.
Common Crane
Common Crane: Large wading bird, gray overall with a black face, chin, throat and neck; shows a patch of bare red skin on crown. Broad white stripe extends from behind eye down back of neck. Black flight feathers and short tail are visible in flight. Bill is dull yellow and legs and feet are black.
Black-tailed Godwit
Black-tailed Godwit: Large, tall godwit with black-barred, orange-brown body. Orange-brown head and neck, and white mark between eye and bill; combination of prominent white rump, white wing bar, and pure white underwings is unique among the godwits. Black-tipped yellow bill is long and straight.
Rose-ringed Parakeet
Rose-ringed Parakeet: This large green parakeet has a pale red ring around the neck, black moustache stripe, pale blue nape, red eye ring and bill, long slender green tail with blue central feathers, and gray legs and feet. Female lacks head markings, and shorter tail is all green. Feeds on buds, fruit, vegetables and seeds. Fairly high rapid flight.
Orange-winged Parrot
Orange-winged Parrot: Medium green parrot, yellow head, broad blue eyebrow. Small red-orange patch in secondary feathers while perched and in flight. Green tail has yellow to orange base in outer feathers. Hooked bill is dull yellow with a dark tip. Legs and feet are gray.
Budgerigar
Budgerigar: Small parakeet, mostly green in its wild form and may have varying amounts blue, white, or yellow in feral U.S. populations. Has a characteristic pug face, and most have finely barred upperparts. Feeds primarily on grass seeds. Birds in a flock fly in a charecteristic undulating manner.
Nutting's Flycatcher
Nutting's Flycatcher: Medium flycatcher with olive-brown upperparts, yellow belly and undertail coverts, darker olive-brown crown, brown tail and wings, and pale gray throat, breast. Feeds on insects and berries. Strong flight on rapidly beating wings. Hovers and dips to pick up prey.
Scissor-tailed Flycatcher
Scissor-tailed Flycatcher: Medium flycatcher with pale gray upperparts and head, white underparts and throat, salmon-pink sides and flanks, and dark brown wings with white edges. Tail is long and scissor-like, black above with white outer edges and white below with black inner edges.
Lark Bunting
Lark Bunting: Large sparrow, nearly black with large white wing patches, short, white-edged tail, and heavy, blue-gray bill. Forages in groung, low vegetation. Strong flight, alternates shallow wing beats with brief periods of wings pulled to sides. It is the state bird of Colorado.
Black Vulture
Black Vulture: Large raptor, black overall, short, featherless neck, pale bill, short and squared tail, long, pale gray legs and feet. Gray-black skin on head and neck is wrinkled. White-tipped wings, held horizontal in flight. Soars on thermals, must flap its wings more often than a Turkey Vulture.
Black-capped Vireo
Black-capped Vireo: Small vireo, olive-green upperparts, black hood, white spectacles interrupted with black above the eye, white underparts with olive-yellow flanks. Wings are dark with two pale bars. Iris is red-brown to red. It has been listed as an endangered species since 1987.
Fork-tailed Flycatcher
Fork-tailed Flycatcher: Medium-sized flycatcher with pale gray upperparts, black head, inconspicuous yellow crown stripe, and white underparts. Wings and spectacularly long, deeply forked tail are black. Wing linings are white. Swift flight with shallow wing beats. Feeds on insects.
Plain-capped Starthroat
Plain-capped Starthroat: Medium-sized hummingbird with iridescent bronze-green upperparts and head, red throat, white face interrupted by black eyestripe, and pale gray underparts. Slightly notched tail is bronze-green with white-tipped black terminal band. Direct and hovering flight.
White-throated Needletail
White-throated Needletail: Large swift, gray-brown overall with white throat and undertail. Wings are glossed with green. Tail is short and square, with protruding feather shafts giving a spiked appearance. Very swift flight with several rapid wing beats followed by swooping glides.
Common Greenshank
Common Greenshank: Large sandpiper with scaled gray-brown upperparts, white rump, and white underparts, streaked and spotted with brown on flanks and sides. Yellow-green legs. Bill is slightly upturned. Eats small fish, insects and larvae. Swift direct flight with clipped wing beats.
Great Kiskadee
Great Kiskadee: Large flycatcher with brown upperparts, white head with black cap and eye-line, and bright yellow underparts. Yellow crown patch is usually concealed. Wings and tail are chestnut-brown. Black bill, legs and feet. Slow fluttering direct flight with shallow wing beats.
Buff-collared Nightjar
Buff-collared Nightjar: Small nightjar, mottled gray-brown upperparts, buff collar that appears lighter on dark throat, pale gray-brown underparts with dark brown bars. Tail is gray-brown with white corners. Legs and feet are black. Flight is silent and bouyant on flicking wing beats.
Common Cuckoo
Common Cuckoo: Large cuckoo, gray upperparts, paler underparts with dark bars on belly. Dark gray wings; tail is dark gray with spotting on outer edges near base. Feeds on caterpillars, insects and larvae. Wings are held low in flight, depressed far below body at bottom of downstroke.
Scaly-breasted Munia
Scaly-breasted Munia: This small finch has chestnut-brown upperparts and dark-scaled white underparts. The head is richer brown and the bill is heavy and dark. It forages on the ground or hangs from stems to eat seeds; also feeds on greens and insects. Rapid fluctuating flight, gliding into cover. Native to Southeast Asia, where they have been popular as cage birds. Sexes are similar. AKA Spice Finch. Name changed from Nutmeg Mannikin to Scaly-breasted Munia in 2014 by the American Ornithologist Union.
Sharp-tailed Grouse
Sharp-tailed Grouse: Medium grouse with lightly barred brown upperparts and white underparts dotted with chevrons. Head has short crest, yellow-orange eye comb, and pink or violet neck patch exposed when displaying. Tail is pointed and white-edged. Often seen on prairies in the summer.
Vesper Sparrow
Vesper Sparrow: Medium sparrow, black-streaked gray-brown upperparts, white underparts, and streaked breast and sides. White face has brown cheek patch and white eye-ring. Wings are gray-brown with two pale bars and rufous shoulder patches. Tail is notched and dark with white edges.
Wedge-tailed Shearwater
Wedge-tailed Shearwater Dark Morph: This large shearwater is dark brown overall with a black-tipped, dark gray bill. Tail is long and pointed in flight, extends past the pink legs and feet, and fans to wedge-shaped when banking turns or landing. Soars with slow flapping wing beats followed by upward glide. Diet typically includes fish and squid. Sexes are similar.
Swamp Sparrow
Swamp Sparrow: Small sparrow with dark-streaked brown upperparts, gray upper breast, and pale gray, faintly streaked underparts. Head has rust-brown cap with paler median stripe and gray face. The wings are rust-brown with black-and-white streaks. Eats seeds, insects. Pink legs, feet.
Sagebrush Sparrow
Sagebrush Sparrow: Medium sparrow, dark-streaked brown back, white underparts with central breast spot, streaks on sides. Gray head has white patch in front of eye. White throat has dark moustache stripe. Brown wings, two faint bars. Long tail is dark, white edged. Coastal form is darker. Sage Sparrow was split into two distinct species in 2014 by the American Ornithologist Union. Bell’s Sparrow and Sagebrush Sparrow.
Smith's Longspur
Smith's Longspur: Medium sparrow, yellow-brown streaked upperparts, black head with white eyebrow and ear patch, and yellow-brown nape, throat, and underparts. Wings have large white bars. Tail is black with white edges. Yellow-brown legs and feet. Feeds on seeds, spiders, and insects.
Lanceolated Warbler
Lanceolated Warbler: Medium warbler with streaked gray-yellow body. Underparts are white, brown streaked breast, flanks and undertail coverts. Brown legs, feet. Rare visitor to Alaska. Feeds on spiders, insects and their larvae. Direct flight close to the ground on shallow wing beats.
Streak-backed Oriole
Streak-backed Oriole: Large oriole with mostly bright orange body except for black streaks on back. Deep orange-red head and breast contrast with black face, chin. Black wings with two bold white bars. Black tail with white corners. Eats mostly insects. Strong direct flight with rapid wing beats.
Bachman's Sparrow
Bachman's Sparrow: Medium-sized sparrow with brown-streaked gray upperparts and buff underparts except for white belly. Face is gray with brown crown and a thin, dark line extending back from eye. The tail is long, dark, and round-tipped. Upper mandible is dark. Legs and feet are pink.
Lesser Prairie-Chicken
Lesser Prairie-Chicken: Medium, stocky grouse, brown overall with fine white bars. Head has yellow-orange combs over eyes, plumes that can be raised or laid along the neck. Red-orange air sacs on sides of neck inflate during courtship. Tail is short, black, and rounded. Yellow-brown feathered legs.
Antillean Nighthawk
Antillean Nighthawk: Large nightjar, buff to pale cinnamon-brown overall with fine, dark bars and conspicuous white throat. White patches on long, pointed wings visible in flight. Tail is long, slightly notched with white subterminal tail band. Bill is tiny, bordered with bristles. Mothlike flight, frequent changes of direction.
Barnacle Goose
Barnacle Goose: Medium goose, distinctive white face, jet-black head, neck, and upper breast. Wings and back are silver-gray with black-and-white bars. Belly is white. V-shaped white rump patch and silver-gray underwing linings are visible in flight. Black bill,legs and feet. Strong direct flight.
Scott's Oriole
Scott's Oriole: Medium-sized oriole with black hood extending onto breast and back. Belly and rump are bright yellow. The wings are black with yellow shoulder patches and two white bars. Tail is yellow with thick black tip and central line. Strong direct flight with rapid wing beats.
Mountain Bluebird
Mountain Bluebird: Small thrush with brilliant blue back, head, and wings. Throat and breast are paler blue, and belly and undertail coverts are white. Female is gray overall with blue wings, rump, and tail. Hovers more than other bluebirds and drops on prey from above, also catches insects in flight. Eats mostly insects in the summer.
Eastern Meadowlark
Eastern Meadowlark: Short ground-dwelling bird with buff- and black-streaked brown upperparts. Head has black-and-white striped crown, white face, black eyestripe and a pointed bill. Throat to belly is yellow, broad black V on breast. Brown tail has white edges and undertail coverts.
White-tailed Ptarmigan
White-tailed Ptarmigan: Small grouse, mottled brown overall, white on wings, breast, belly, red eye comb, white-edged brown tail, legs covered with white feathers. It is the smallest of the ptarmigans, and the only one that nests south of Canada. Lives most of its life above timberline.
Orchard Oriole
Orchard Oriole: Small oriole, black head, back, tail, and chestnut-orange shoulder patches, underparts, rump. Wings are black with single broad white bar; flight feathers have white edges. Feeds on insects, fruits, berries, nectar and flowers. Swift direct flight on rapid wing beats.
Bobolink
Bobolink: Small, lark-like blackbird, all-black except for buff nape, white rump, and white wing patches. Tertials and wing coverts are lined with buff. Tail feathers are sharply pointed. Legs and feet are gray. Eats caterpillars, insects, seeds and grains. Strong undulating flight.
Rufous-crowned Sparrow
Rufous-crowned Sparrow: Medium sparrow with gray-brown upperparts streaked with red-brown; underparts are gray. Head has rufous crown, gray face, rufous eye-line, and thick, black moustache stripe. Wings are brown and lack bars. Tail is long and rounded. Legs and feet are pink-gray.
Lark Sparrow
Lark Sparrow: Medium sparrow with streaked, gray-brown upperparts and buff underparts with black breast spot. Head has black, white, and chestnut-brown stripes. Tail is long and black with white edges. Short, fluttering flight, alternates rapid wing beats with wings pulled to sides.
Savannah Sparrow
Savannah Sparrow: Small sparrow, dark-streaked, gray-brown upperparts, white underparts, heavy streaks on breast and sides. Head has a brown crown with pale central stripe and pale yellow or white eyebrows. Brown wings have two pale bars. Tail is short and notched. Pink legs and feet.
Wild Turkey
Wild Turkey: This large, ground-walking bird is iridescent dark brown overall with black and green bars and a small, featherless blue head that changes color with mood. Red throat wattles, black breast beard and legs with spurs. Female is smaller, duller, and lacks spurs and beard. Diet includes insects and grains. Swift powerful flight for short distances with rapid wing beats and deep strokes.
McCown's Longspur
McCown's Longspur: Medium-sized sparrow with streaked gray upperparts, plain gray underparts, and darker breast. The head has a black crown, white face and throat, and a stout, heavy bill. White tail has diagnostic black inverted T. Wings have chestnut-brown bars. Black legs and feet.
Lapland Longspur
Lapland Longspur: Medium sparrow-like bird, brown-streaked black back. Underparts are white, streaked black on sides, flanks. Crown, face, and throat are black; nape is red-brown. Broad white stripe from eye to sides of breast. Bill is yellow with dark tip. Tail is long, white edges.
Yellow Grosbeak
Yellow Grosbeak: Large finch, yellow overall with black streaks on back. Bill is large and triangular with black upper mandible and gray lower mandible. Black wings have two white bars and black tail coverts have bold white tips. Alternates rapid wing beats with wings pulled to sides.
Crimson-collared Grosbeak
Crimson-collared Grosbeak: Large finch with blood-red body, brown-red back, black hood, bib, huge conical bill, and dark wings. Female has black hood and bib but body is olive to olive-yellow. Forages in brushy woodland. Feeds on insects, larvae, seeds, fruits, berries. Short flights, alternates rapid wing beats with wings pulled briefly to sides.
Pallas's Bunting
Pallas's Bunting: Medium bunting, gray-brown upperparts with black streaks. Lower breast, belly, and undertail coverts are white. Head, throat and upper breast are black. Collar and moustache stripe are white. Tail is black with white outer feathers and corners. Black bill, legs, feet.
Reed Bunting
Reed Bunting: Medium-sized finch with dark-streaked brown upperparts and faintly streaked, white underparts. Head and throat are black; moustache stripe and collar are distinctly white, and tail is white-edged. Short, low flights, alternates rapid wing beats with wings pulled to sides.
Little Bunting
Little Bunting: Small finch with dark-streaked gray-brown upperparts, heavily streaked white underparts. Face and crown are chestnut-brown and black-bordered. Eye-ring is dull white; throat is white. Wings have two pale, thin bars. Legs, feet are yellow. Tail has white outer feathers.
Gray Bunting
Gray Bunting Breeding Male: Medium sized, dark gray bunting with black streaks on back, shoulders, and underparts. Undertail coverts are white. Heavy, pink bill with black tip, culmen. Pink legs and feet. Short flights, alternates rapid wing beats with periods of wings pulled to sides. Secretive.
Brown-capped Rosy-Finch
Brown-capped Rosy-Finch: Medium finch, pink-red overall with black forehead, brown head, breast, back. Black bill in summer, yellow with black tip in winter. Forages on ground, eats seeds, sometimes insects. Swift bouncy flight, alternates rapid wing beats with wings pulled to sides.
Common Rosefinch
Common Rosefinch: Small, stocky finch, red upperparts and breast, faintly streaked brown back, white underparts. Bill is dark gray and stout. Wings and tail are dark brown. Legs and feet are gray-brown. Forages on ground and in trees and shrubs for seeds and insects. Bounding flight.
Common Redpoll
Common Redpoll: Small finch, brown-streaked gray upperparts, bright rose-pink breast, boldly streaked flanks and undertail coverts. Red cap and black chin. Bill is olive-brown with fine black tip. Wings are dark with two narrow white bars; tail is black and notched. Black legs, feet.
Shiny Cowbird
Shiny Cowbird: Small blackbird with purple sheen on head, back, breast. Eyes are dark. Black bill, legs, feet. Forages on ground, walking with tail cocked above back. Eats insects, caterpillars, seeds and rice. Swift direct flight on rapid wing beats. Travels alone or in small flocks.
Bronzed Cowbird
Bronzed Cowbird: Small blackbird (aeneus), brown-black overall with blue sheen on wings and tail. Eyes are red and bill is dark and heavy. Feeds on insects, seeds and grains. Often follows cattle to eat insects that are kicked up. Swift direct and swooping flight with rapid wing beats.
Oriental Greenfinch
Oriental Greenfinch: Medium finch with dark gray-brown upperparts, brown underparts, yellow undertail coverts. Face, breast, rump are olive-green; cap, nape are gray. Bill is pink. Dark wings have white-edged feathers and large yellow patches. Black tail has yellow on outer feathers.
Five-striped Sparrow
Five-striped Sparrow: Medium sparrow, dark, gray-brown upperparts, gray underparts, white belly. Head has thin white eyebrow and eye-ring, and black-and-white throat stripes. Pink-gray legs, feet. Short flights, alternates rapid wing beats with brief periods of wings pulled to sides.
Black-capped Chickadee
Black-capped Chickadee: Medium-sized, stocky chickadee with pale gray upperparts and breast and pale olive-brown underparts. The black cap and bib and white cheeks are conspicuous. Black bill is short and thin. Wings are dark with broad white edges on feathers. State bird of Maine and Massachusetts.
Least Flycatcher
Least Flycatcher: Small flycatcher with olive-gray upperparts, gray breast, and pale yellow belly. Eye-ring is white. The bill has pale lower mandible with dark tip. Legs and feet are black. Feeds on insects, spiders, berries and seeds. Weak fluttering direct flight with shallow wing beats.
Botteri's Sparrow
Botteri's Sparrow: Medium-sized sparrow with brown-streaked, gray upperparts and pale gray underparts. Bill is gray. Wings are tinged rust-brown. Tail is gray-brown, long, and round-tipped. Short flights with rapidly beating wing strokes alternating with wings pulled briefly to sides.
Rufous-winged Sparrow
Rufous-winged Sparrow: Medium sparrow, gray-brown upperparts finely streaked with black; underparts are white. Pale gray head has rufous crown divided by gray median stripe, red-brown eye-line, and black moustache stripe. Wings are brown with rufous shoulder patches and two white bars.
Henslow's Sparrow
Henslow's Sparrow: Small sparrow, black-streaked brown upperparts. Breast, sides, and flanks are dark-streaked pale buff; throat and belly are white. Head is olive-brown with dark lines. Weak fluttering flight with tail jerking, alternates rapid wing beats with wings pulled to sides.
Horned Lark
Horned Lark: Medium-sized lark with pale or dark brown upperparts and white underparts. Face and throat are pale yellow to white and mask, cap, and ear tufts are black. Tail is dark with white edges. Forages on ground, usually in open fields. Eats seeds, grains, insects and small mollusks.
Northern Cardinal
Northern Cardinal: This large crested finch has a vivid red body. The black mask and chin contrast with a heavy red bill. Female is duller overall, with red wings and tail washed with gray, and smaller crest. Forages on the ground in trees and bushes. Feeds on seeds, grains, fruits, insects and snails. Hops instead of walking on the ground. Alternates rapid wing beats with wings pulled to sides.
Sedge Wren
Sedge Wren: Small wren with white-streaked, brown upperparts and pale buff underparts. Eyebrows are pale brown. Tail is short and barred. Bill is short and the legs and feet are pink. One of the most nomadic territorial birds. In any area it may be abundant one year, absent the next.
Eastern Phoebe
Eastern Phoebe: Small flycatcher with dark gray-brown upperparts and slightly darker wings and tail. Underparts are pale with hint of olive-brown or yellow on sides and breast. Bill, legs, and feet are black. Feeds on insects, small fish, berries and fruit. Weak fluttering bouyant flight.
Wilson's Snipe
Wilson's Snipe: This medium-sized sandpiper has brown and black mottled upperparts, buff striped back, white underparts, dark bars on sides and flanks, heavily streaked head, neck and breast, and yellow-green legs and feet. Feeds on insects and earthworms. Zigzag flight on takeoff, followed by direct flight with rapid wing beats. Sexes are similar.
Yellow-breasted Bunting
Yellow-breasted Bunting: Medium bunting, rufous upperparts, black head. Yellow underparts with dark streaks on sides and flanks, bold chestnut-brown breast band. Black wings with large white shoulder patches, wing-bars. Swift flight, alternates rapid wing beats with wings pulled to sides.
Eclectus Parrot
Eclectus Parrot: Large, green parrot, blue flight feathers, red wing linings and upper flanks, and yellow-orange and black bill. Long wings, blue flight feathers, black underneath. Medium tail, blue near tip. Female different, deep crimson red with purple-blue collar and belly, narrow blue-gray eyering, and a black bill. Juveniles like adults.
Oriental Pratincole
Oriental Pratincole: Small, gray-brown wader-like bird with white belly, vent, and rump. White crescent below eye, black border to white-buff throat. Long gray-brown wings, red-brown wing lining. White tail with black band, long outer tail feathers. Sexes similar, winter adult and juvenile lack red on bill and have less black on head and throat.
Rufous Night-Heron
Rufous Night-Heron: Medium, stocky heron with black cap. Nape, back, wings, and tail are red-brown, paler red-brown on sides of neck and breast. Throat, flanks, belly, and vent are brown-gray. Medium-length, sharp, black bill with olive-gray base. Sexes similar. Juvenile gray-brown with white streaks, some spots on wings, more yellow on bill.
Blue-faced Parrotfinch
Blue-faced Parrotfinch: Small green finch with black bill, blue front and face, red rump, and red tail. Slightly pointed, longish red tail. Female very similar to male but has paler plumage. Juvenile is gray with buff base on black bill, then molts into plumage like female.
Brahminy Kite
Brahminy Kite: Large, chestnut-colored raptor with white head and breast. Faint streaks on crown, nape, and breast, and long, broad wings with black primaries. Medium length tail with slightly rounded tip. Sexes are similar. Juvenile brown with some white on head, pale patch on base of primaries, buff streaks on underparts, and black primaries.
Collared Kingfisher
Collared Kingfisher: Medium kingfisher with blue back, wings, and tail, white underparts and collar, brown-blue crown, white lores, and black mask. Large, black-gray bill with pink-buff base has slightly upcurved mandible. Medium tail. Female like male but slightly duller blue plumage. Juvenile has black collar and some black scaling on breast.
Chestnut-cheeked Starling
Chestnut-cheeked Starling: Small starling with buff-white head, chestnut on cheeks and throat, black-purple back, buff-white rump, long, black-green and white wings, gray breast and flanks, and white belly. Short, forked tail. Female and juvenile pale, gray-brown with black flight feathers and bill, and white shoulder, belly, and vent.
Oriental Plover
Oriental Plover: Small plover, white head, gray-brown on crown and back, black band separates orange-brown breast from white belly. Black, straight, medium bill. Pointed, gray-brown wings. Long, green-yellow legs and feet. Female, non-breeding male, and juvenile gray-brown above, buff edges to feathers and on face. White below and on front.
Dollarbird
Dollarbird: Medium, blue-green roller with purple-blue throat, large, brown-olive head, and wide, orange-red bill. Long, pointed wings have purple-black flight feathers and white-blue patch on base of the primaries. Medium-length, purple-black, rectangular tail. Short orange-red legs and feet. Female and juvenile like male but duller.
Black-headed Bunting
Black-headed Bunting: Small yellow bunting with black hood, and chestnut back, rump, and sides of breast. Gray-black wings with light brown edging and one white bar in shoulder. Slightly forked, brown-gray tail. Winter female and juvenile like male but much paler, gray-brown instead of chestnut, and streaks on back and crown.
Chinese Pond-Heron
Chinese Pond-Heron: Small, stocky white heron with red-brown head and neck, chestnut breast, slate-gray back, yellow-white around eye, and white chin and line down front of neck. Short, rounded tail. Non-breeding adults have more black on bill, no red-brown or chestnut in plumage, brown-gray back, and brown-gray streaks on crown, face, and breast.
Micronesian Myzomela
Micronesian Myzomela: Small, deep red honeyeater with black belly, vent, wings, and tail. Bit of black around eye and on lores. Medium, black, sharp, downcurved bill. Medium-length, notched tail. Medium black-gray legs and feet. Female and juvenile like male but duller red plumage. more brown on belly, and more brown-black wings and tail.
African Silverbill
African Silverbill: This small pale tan songbird has finely vermiculated buff-brown upperparts, white underparts and dark wings. It is paler on the belly and vent and has a stout, pale gray conical bill and a pale gray eye ring. It feeds mainly on seeds. It has an undulating flight. The sexes look similar.
Black-rumped Waxbill
Black-rumped Waxbill: This small songbird has tan-gray upperparts, a black rump and tail with white outer feathers, pink-buff underparts, a white throat and a long narrow red mask. It has a red conical bill and brown legs and feet. The female can have a paler underside than the male, and only the male sings. It feeds on insects, including green aphids and fruit flies. Undulating flight.
Chestnut Munia
Chestnut Munia: This is a small, mostly uniform chestnut colored estrildid finch with a black head and upper breast. It has a large conical bill and blue-gray legs and feet. It feeds mainly on seeds, usually in relatively open habitats, preferring to feed on the ground. It has an undulating flight. The sexes are similar.
Taiga Bean-Goose
Taiga Bean-Goose: Large goose, scaled brown upperparts, white underparts. Head, neck are dark brown. Black bill with yellow-orange saddle. Tail dark with white undertail coverts. Legs and feet orange. Feeds on plants, seeds, fruits. Strong direct flight on steady wing beats. Flies in V formation.
Brown-chested Martin
Brown-chested Martin: Medium-sized swallow with brown upperparts. The underparts are white with a brown chest band and brown on the flanks. Black bill is short, wide, and slightly decurved and forked tail is short to medium in length. Swooping, erratic flight.
Rosy-faced Lovebird
Rosy-faced Lovebird: Small green parrot with red front, pink throat and breast, and blue rump and tail. Has a narrow, white eyering, pale yellow bill, and gray legs and feet. Has pointed wings and short, square tail. Sexes similar. Juvenile duller overall. Fast, direct flight.
Orange-cheeked Waxbill
Orange-cheeked Waxbill: This Estrildid finch is mostly gray with an orange face patch, orange-red bill, brown back and wings, brick-red rump, and orange-yellow patch on the belly. It has pink-brown legs, medium length wings, and medium length rounded tail. It typically feeds on tiny grass seeds. Direct, undulating flight with rapid wing beats. The sexes are similar.
Bell's Sparrow
Bell’s Sparrow: Medium sparrow with brown back, white underparts with central breast spot, streaks on sides. Gray head has white patch in front of eye. White throat is interrupted by a narrow, dark moustache stripe bordered by a broad white submoustachial stripe. Brown wings, two faint bars. Sage Sparrow was split into two distinct species in 2014 by the American Ornithologist Union. Bell’s Sparrow and Sagebrush Sparrow.
Blue Rock Thrush
Blue Rock Thrush: Small to medium, slate-blue thrush with chestnut belly and vent, and long wings with black-gray primaries. Medium length tail. Female is dark gray-brown above, buff-brown below with black-brown barring on underparts, black-brown scaling on breast and face, and buff eyering. Juvenile is like female but has more scaling.
Hawaiian Moorhen
Hawaiian Moorhen: This moorhen is a subspecies of the Common Gallinule. This dark gray bird has a black head and neck and white feathers on the flanks and under tail coverts, a very distinctive red frontal shield; bill tip is yellow with a red base, and the legs and feet are greenish, without lobes. It feeds on insects, plants and mollusks. It has a swift strong direct flight. Sexes are similar.
Hawaiian Owl
Hawaiian Owl: This medium-sized owl has both light and dark brown mottled upperparts, dark-streaked, pale buff underparts, large round head with pale buff facial disk with fine brown tinges, black around eyes, small ear tufts, yellow eyes, and black bill. Feeds mostly on rodents and mongoose. The flight is erratic with flopping wing beats. Sexes are similar. Subspecies of the Short-eared Owl.
Japanese Quail
Japanese Quail: This small bird has white streaks on mottled gray-brown upperparts, white eyebrow, gray breast with black-gray streaks, rufous sides with white streaks, white belly, gray bill, tan legs and a short tail. The male's throat and face are rufous; female's is white with a black-gray border. Feeds on grass seeds and insects. Direct flight with rapid wing beats using short rounded wings.
Purple Swamphen
Purple Swamphen: Large, blue-purple rail with blue-black head, orange-red frontal shield, green-black back, and white vent. Large, deep, orange-red bill. Broad, black and purple-blue wings. Very short, black tail with white undertail. Long, red-pink legs and long toes. Sexes similar. Juvenile is duller overall with gray-black legs, feet, and bill.
Red-legged Crake
Red-legged Crake: Small to medium rail, red-brown head and breast, red eyering, brown back and wings, some black and white marks. White belly and vent with black barring. Short to medium-length, gray-black bill with blue-gray base and red on gape. Long red legs. Female like male but more narrow barring. Juvenile like adult but gray-brown.
Blyth's Pipit
Blyth's Pipit: Buff-brown to Streaked black-brown above; wings are tipped buff with two pale wingbars. Tail is black-brown with rufous tinged central feathers; buff below and orange-buff on flanks, vent and undertail. Upper breast has dark streaking, cream colored supercilium extending behind the eye with thin black moustachial stripe and broad buff submoustachial stripe, narrow black malar stripe. Female is similar and juvenile is paler and has white wingbars and feather tips.
Little Tern
Little Tern: Small white tern, black cap, white front. White-gray on back and upper wings. Outer three primaries black-gray. Medium, pointed, orange-yellow bill with black tip. Short, orange-yellow legs and feet. Sexes similar. Winter adult has less black on head, black bill, and duller legs. Juvenile like winter adult but more black in wings.
Oriental Reed-Warbler
Oriental Reed-Warbler: Small brown warbler with short crest, white-buff line above and in front of eye, white throat and breast, and white-buff on rest of underparts. Medium, gray-brown and brown-pink bill. Medium-length wings with brown-black flight feathers. Medium-length black-gray legs and feet. Sexes similar. Juvenile more red-brown.
Palau Swiftlet
Palau Swiftlet: Small gray-brown swift with black-brown cap, wing linings, and tail. Gray on rump and throat. Very short black bill with wide gape. Large, black eye. Medium to long, pointed wings. Medium, slightly cleft tail. Very short, black-gray legs and feet. Sexes and juvenile similar.
White-browed Crake
White-browed Crake: Small rail, gray-black crown, white lores go above eye, short black mask, white throat in line below and behind eye. Side of neck, breast gray. White-brown belly and vent. Back, wings, and tail gray-brown. Medium to short, thick, red-orange bill, orange-yellow tip. Sexes similar, juvenile has paler face pattern and underparts.
Chestnut Munia (Palau)
Chestnut Munia (Palau): Small red-brown finch with black hood and breast, and blue-gray eyering. Some birds also show black on the belly and vent. Strong, conical blue-gray bill. Slightly pointed, longish red-brown tail. Sexes similar. Juvenile is gray-brown with black bill.
Striped Owl
Striped Owl: Medium sized, slender owl, mottled brown and buff upperparts, white and buff underparts with black streaks. White facial disk with black outline. Long ear tufts. Eyes yellow-brown. Long wings. Bare, yellow feet.
Rufous-tailed Bush-Hen
Rufous-tailed Bush-Hen: Small to medium-sized, brown-gray rail with olive-brown back, wings, and tail, and a tan belly and vent. Rather short, yellow-green bill with yellow spot at the top base of the culmen. Short, broad wings. Very short tail. Fairly long green-yellow legs and feet. Sexes similar. Juvenile is paler with more white on throat.
Scaly Thrush
Scaly Thrush: Large thrush with brown and black scaled pattern on white underparts and face, fine buff and black scaling on crown, and black scaling on brown back and rump. White eyering, lores, and throat. Black mark on ear and malar. Two buff wing bars and narrow black stripe on long wings. Sexes and juvenile similar.
Whimbrel (Palau)
Whimbrel (Palau): This large long-legged sandpiper has brown and white mottled upperparts and buff underparts with faint streaks on sides and flanks. It has a white-striped black crown. Neck is long and streaked; long black decurved bill, blue-gray legs and feet. Tail is brown and black barred, rump and lower back is white. Diet includes insects and worms. Direct flight with strong fast wing beats. Sexes are similar.
Black Kite
Black Kite: Medium to large, long-winged raptor with gray-brown upperparts, and faint streaks on gray-brown underparts. Head is paler than body, dark mark around eye. Long wings have large pale patch on base of primaries. Long, slightly forked, faintly barred tail. Sexes similar. Juvenile like adult but paler, more streaks.
Buff-banded Rail
Buff-banded Rail: Chicken-sized rail with chestnut crown, face, and nape, long white eyebrow, brown back and wings with some black and white spotting, and gray underparts with black and white barring on breast and belly. Buff band on breast. Short brown tail with some black and white barring. Sexes similar. Juvenile like adult but much paler.
Cattle Egret (Palau)
Cattle Egret (Palau): Small, short-necked and stocky egret with white body and pale orange-brown patches on head, neck and back. Sexes are similar. Breeding plumes are slightly shorter on the female. Breeding birds' legs are yellow-green and irises are dark yellow. During peak breeding season, bill, legs and irises turn a bright red. Winter adult and juvenile are white and with dull yellow-orange eyes and bill, legs are green-black. Races separated by the amount and intensity of the orange-brown patches.
Dusky White-eye
Dusky White-eye: Tiny, warbler-like bird with red-brown eye, brown-gray plumage above and on head, and olive-gray below. Sharp, black bill. Short tail with square tip. Medium, black legs and feet. Sexes and juvenile similar.
Scaly-breasted Munia (Palau)
Scaly-breasted Munia: Small finch, brown head, throat, back, and wings. Rest of underparts white with brown scaling on breast and flanks. Narrow, blue-gray eyering, Thick, deep, black bill. Sexes similar. Juvenile is plain brown with paler gray-brown on belly and vent.
Barn Swallow (Palau)
Barn Swallow (Palau): Medium-sized swallow with glittering blue-black upperparts and red-brown forehead. Breast is red-brown with dark band and belly is white to orange. Tail is short and forked. Female and juvenile are duller and have shorter tail streamers.
Eastern Yellow Wagtail (Palau)
Eastern Yellow Wagtail (Palau): Small wagtail (tschutschensis), with olive-green upperparts and yellow underparts with brown spots on sides of breast. Throat is white with faint brown necklace. Gray head has black ear patches and distinct white eyebrows. Wings are dark with two white bars. Tail is very long, black with white edges and wags constantly. Sexes are similar. Juvenile has buff underparts.
Gray Heron
Gray Heron: Large wading bird, upperparts are pale gray to blue-gray, underparts are white. Large flight feathers are dark gray-blue. Head is white with a large blue-black eyebrow and long black crest. White neck and breast have black mottling along sides. Yellow legs and bill turn reddish during the breeding season.
Intermediate Egret
Intermediate Egret: Medium to large white heron with rounded head, orange-brown eyes, gray-green lores, and an orange-red bill. Long wings. Medium length bill, tail short with a square tip. Long, red and black legs, black feet. Sexes similar. Juvenile and non-breeding birds have orange-yellow bill, yellow lores, and no red on legs.
Common Moorhen (Palau)
Common Moorhen (Palau): Medium, chicken-like rail with black-gray head, back, and underparts. Gray-brown back, wings, and tail. Short, white bars on flanks, white undertail with black stripe. Red frontal shield and bill with yellow tip. Short tail. Sexes similar. Juvenile like adult but brown, white on throat, no red on head, and yellow-brown bill.
Common Ringed Plover (Palau)
Common Ringed Plover (Palau): Plump little plover with dark gray-brown upperparts, pure white underparts, and strong black mask and chest band. Base of dark-tipped bill and legs are bright orange. Female has a brown cast in the black bands. Juvenile resembles female but has even more of a brown cast; also has dull orange bill and legs.
Common Tern (Palau)
Common Tern (Palau): Medium-sized tern with medium gray upperparts, pale gray underparts sometimes with some pink early in breeding season; glossy black cap and nape. Wings are dark-tipped and have dark leading edge on fore wing. Red bill is black-tipped. Legs are red and tail is deeply forked and elongated, tail reaches wingtips at rest. Sexes are similar. Winter adult and juveniles have white forehead, black crown with white streaks; prominent dark bar on lesser coverts; underparts gray; black bill with red base; legs duller red to black-red.
Common Waxbill
Common Waxbill: This small finch is mostly brown-gray with red on the belly and a line through the eye. The bill is red-orange, the legs and feet are black, and it has faint barring on the upperparts and flanks. The wings are short and the tail is medium in length. The female is similar, but lacks red on the belly and has a black bill. It feeds mainly on grass seeds. The flight is undulating.
Spectacled Eider
Spectacled Eider: Smallest of the Eiders, has orange bill, white upperparts, black underparts, breast, sides, black pointed tail, yellow-green head and large white "goggles" bordered with black. White feathers on the upper mandible extend past nostril. Rapid direct flight in straight line formation.
White-cheeked Pintail
White-cheeked Pintail: Large, heavily spotted dark and light brown duck with striking white cheek patches, blue bill with bright red base, buff pointed tail. Legs and feet are blue-gray. Feeds on aquatic plants, small invertebrates. Swift direct flight with strong rapid wing beats. AKA Bahama Duck.
Gull-billed Tern
Gull-billed Tern: Lightest North American tern. Black cap that extends below eyes, down nape; pale gray upperparts that are darker at the wingtips; short, stout black bill and black legs, feet; long wings with very long outer primaries. Direct flight with graceful, shallow wing beats.
Eurasian Coot
Eurasian Coot: Medium, squat marsh bird, all black with white bill, frontal shield. Eye-rings are red, legs are yellow-gray. Feeds on aquatic plants, insects, amphibians, mollusks and small fish. Agressive towards other water birds. Swift direct flight on rapid wing beats, feet protrude beyond tail.
European Golden-Plover
European Golden-Plover: Largest of the golden plovers, showing black crown, throat, neck and upperparts with small bright gold spotting. White band on forehead runs down sides of neck and along flank; black underparts are trimmed in white. Undertail is white and the legs are short and dark gray.
Gunnison Sage-Grouse
Gunnison Sage-Grouse: Recognized as a species in 2000. Large grouse, mottled gray-brown overall with white breast, black face, chin, throat, bib and belly. Black bill. Yellow eye combs and long black filoplumes on neck show when courting. Brown tail feathers are long and pointed, with white bands.
Northwestern Crow
Northwestern Crow: Fairly small crow , black overall with dark, stout bill, iridescent violet gloss on body, and blue-black wings. Tail is fan-shaped in flight. Feeds on marine invertebrates, insects, fish, fruits, seeds, carrion, refuse, eggs of seabirds. Direct flight on steady, stiff wing beats.
Pin-tailed Snipe
Pin-tailed Snipe: Large, chunky, cryptically colored shorebird. Upperparts complexly mottled tan, brown, and black. Tail rufous. Long gray-green bill, dark brown tip. Legs, feet are gray-green. Feeds on insects, larvae, worms, seeds. Flushes in a zigzag pattern. Direct flight with rapid wing beats.
Northern Bobwhite
Northern Bobwhite: Medium, morphologically variable quail, most with unique head pattern of white face and throat, dark eyestripe, rufous-brown (eastern and Great Plains) or black (Florida) center stripe on top of head. Body shows a mottled combination of black, brown, rufous-brown, and gray.
Gray Partridge
Gray Partridge: Gray-brown ground bird with rufous face and throat. Body complexly barred and streaked with red and white. Dark red belly patch. Legs and feet are yellow-orange. Prefers to walk rather than fly. Introduced to North America as a game bird in the early 1900s. AKA Hungarian Partridge.
Montezuma Quail
Montezuma Quail: Odd, plump quail with short tail, complexly buff-barred and streaked dark upperparts, and heavily white spotted dark underparts divided by a wide rufous-brown stripe from breast to tail. Face is boldly patterned black and white; head has a rounded light brown crest.
Mountain Quail
Mountain Quail: Large,striking quail with long elegant black head plume, white-bordered rufous-brown face and throat, gray-brown upperparts, blue-gray breast, and rufous-brown belly and sides with distinct white bars. Rapid direct flight, series of several stiff wing beats followed by a short glide.
Common Snipe
Common Snipe: Longest-billed of all snipes, best identified by broad white stripe at base of underwing. Upperparts cryptically colored with brown and yellow-brown streaks of many different shades. Underparts white but strongly suffused with orange wash, heavily barred and streaked with dark brown.
Eurasian Curlew
Eurasian Curlew: Large curlew, strongly marked underparts lack rich orange or buff tones that other long billed curlews often show. Brown upperparts. Large, decurved bill, black upper mandible, lower mandible has pink base. In flight it shows prominent white lower back, rump, and underwing linings.
Great Knot
Great Knot: Medium sandpiper with brown upperparts showing dark spots on crown and back, and white underparts with black spots on breast and sides. Bill is short and black. Wings show bright patch of orange-brown on coverts. Legs and feet are gray-green. Swift direct flight with rapid wing beats.
American Woodcock
American Woodcock: Medium, stocky sandpiper with buff-brown underparts and dark-streaked gray-brown upperparts. Head shows black bars rather than the stripes of most other sandpipers. Eyes are black and very large; bill is dull yellow with a black tip and is long and stout. Pale gray legs and feet.
Broad-billed Sandpiper
Broad-billed Sandpiper: Small sandpiper with a long bill that curves down at the tip. Pale-edged dark brown feathers on upperparts give a scaled appearance; back shows two pale streaks in flight; underparts are white with dark spots on breast and neck. Head has dark cap and forked white eyebrows.
Common Sandpiper
Common Sandpiper: Eurasian counterpart to the Spotted Sandpiper; has dusky gray upperparts, heavily streaked breast, and sparkling white underparts. Best distinguished by its habit of standing in a semi-crouch and bobbing back and forth. Flies low over water with stiff shallow wing beats and glides.
Eskimo Curlew
Eskimo Curlew: Small curlew, brown mottled upperparts, buff underparts streaked and mottled brown, and pale cinnamon wing linings. Bill is moderately short, not as strongly curved as similar curlews. Crown has two dark stripes. Wings noticeably long on perched bird. Last sighted in Canada in 1982.
Far Eastern Curlew
Far Eastern Curlew: Largest curlew, very long, decurved bill, longest of any shorebird. Dark brown with heavily streaked underparts. Blue-gray legs, feet. Eats crustaceans, marine worms, insects, larvae, invertebrates. Strong steady flight, rapid wing beats. Flies in straight line or V formation.
Corn Crake
Corn Crake: Medium rail, buff-yellow overall with brown-barred flanks, conspicuous chestnut wing patch, gray head and neck with dark crown, yellow bill. Eats worms, insects, snails, slugs, sometimes seeds and grains. Weak flight with legs dangling, drops back into vegetation after a short distance.
Short-tailed Hawk
Short-tailed Hawk: Small hawk of grass and woodland habitat in Florida. Occurs in two color morphs: Dark morph adult is uniformly dark brown with thin dark bands on a dull white tail. In flight shows white flight feathers with thin dark bands and dark wingtips. The light morph has white underparts.
Northern Lapwing
Northern Lapwing: Large, unique plover with black breast, face, crown, and long upright head plumes; back is green-tinged purple and copper. Belly and sides are white, uppertail is white with a black tip, and undertail coverts are rich rufous-orange. Wings are dark with white tips; legs are pink.
Common Ringed Plover
Common Ringed Plover: Plump little plover with dark gray-brown upperparts, pure white underparts, and strong black mask and chest band. Base of dark-tipped bill and legs are bright orange. Frequents mudflats. Eats worms, aquatic insects, crustaceans and mollusks. Direct flight with rapid wing beats.
Red-crested Cardinal
Red-crested Cardinal: Native to South America, this bird has a bright red head, crest, face, chin and upper breast. The upperparts are gray with an incomplete white collar that nearly meets at the back of the neck. It has white underparts, a light gray bill and gray legs and feet. It mainly feeds on plant seeds, fruits, berries and insects. It has an undulating flight. Sexes are similar.
Saffron Finch
Saffron Finch: Native to South America, this finch has yellow-green upperparts, yellow underparts, and an orange crown. Wing and tail feathers are black edged with yellow; gray upper mandible and ivory lower mandible, pink-gray legs and feet. The female is more dull in color and has paler underparts. Feeds on insects, greens and oats. Undulating flight, alternates flapping and gliding.
Yellow-fronted Canary
Yellow-fronted Canary: Native to sub-Saharan Africa, this small finch has olive-gray upperparts and bright yellow underparts and rump, a gray crown and nape, yellow eyebrow and cheek, a dark malar stripe and gray legs and feet. It feeds on seeds and insects. Bounding flight, alternates flapping with gliding. Sexes are similar, female is duller.
Java Sparrow
Java Sparrow: This largest member of the Estrildid family has gray upperparts and breast, brown-gray to pink belly, and white under tail coverts. It has a black head with a large white cheek patch, narrow red eye ring, thick conical pink bill, black tail and pink legs and feet. It mostly feeds on rice; also eats small seeds and insects. Fast flight on rapidly beating wings. Sexes are similar.
Red Avadavat
Red Avadavat: This small, active finch native to South Asia is bright red overall with small white spots, brown wings, black tail with red upper tail coverts, black lores, white crescent below each eye, red bill, and pink legs and feet. Female is dark brown, paler beneath, with white spotted wings and red rump. Feeds on insects and seeds. Undulating flight, alternates flapping and gliding.
Red-cheeked Cordonbleu
Red-cheeked Cordonbleu: Native to Africa, this finch has light brown upperparts, buff underparts, blue face with large red cheeks and narrow white eye ring. It has blue flanks, breast and tail, red bill, and yellow-brown legs and feet. Females have duller plumage, less blue feathering, and lack red cheek patches. Feeds mostly on seeds. Undulating flight, alternates periods of flapping and gliding.
Erckel's Francolin
Erckel's Francolin: This partridge was introduced to Hawaii in 1957. It is gray-brown overall with heavy streaks. It has a chestnut cap, black eye stripe and forehead, gray cheeks and light buff to white throat. The back is gray and the tail and wings have fine brown bars. It has a black bill and yellow-gray legs and feet. Diet consists mainly of seeds. Flight is low and fast. Sexes are alike.
Gray Francolin
Gray Francolin: Medium-sized bird; introduced to Hawaii in 1958. It is buff-brown overall with barring, finer on the underparts and heavier on the upperparts. It has a brown crown and nape, buff to orange-brown face and cheeks and a buff throat with a thin black border. It eats seeds, grains and insects. Flight is swift and direct, attained by rapid vibrating wing strokes. Sexes are similar.
Red Junglefowl
Red Junglefowl: This direct ancestor of the domestic chicken has golden-orange and bronze-red upperparts, red comb and wattles, blue-green, rufous, and brown-black underparts, large iridescent, green-black tail, white feather patch at tail base, and gray legs and feet. Female is dull brown-gold with pale red face and throat. Feeds on seeds, grains, and insects. Short direct flight.
Zebra Dove
Zebra Dove: Native to Asia, this dove has brown-gray upperparts with black barring, pink to buff underparts with fine black and white bars on the sides of the neck, breast and belly, and white-edged outer tail feathers. It has a blue-gray face with blue skin around the bill and eye and pink legs and feet with brown stripes. Swift, strong direct flight. Sexes are similar.
Lavender Waxbill
Lavender Waxbill: Native to tropical West Africa, this waxbill is gray overall. It has a black eye stripe, red to black bill, and flanks have a few small white spots. The rump, tail, and tail coverts are red, and legs and feet are gray. Diet includes chickweed, insects and spiders. Undulating flight, alternating between flapping and gliding. Sexes are similar.
Red-vented Bulbul
Red-vented Bulbul: This bird is native from Pakistan to China, and has brown to black upperparts and breast. It has a shiny black head, small crest, buff belly, white rump and upper tail coverts, and red under tail coverts. It has a white-tipped, brown-black tail, and brown-black legs and feet. It feeds mostly on soft fruits, berries, seeds and nectar. Strong and direct flight. Sexes are similar.
White-collared Seedeater
White-collared Seedeater: Small finch with short, thick, curved bill, yellow-gray overall with black head, wings, and round tail; the back is gray. Wings show two white bars. Eats seeds and insects. Weak fluttering flight, alternates rapid wing beats with brief periods of wings pulled to the sides.
Black-faced Grassquit
Black-faced Grassquit: Small sparrow, very dark olive-gray with black head and breast. Black bill, legs and feet. Very common in the West Indies. Feeds mainly on seeds, especially of grasses and weeds. The flight is weak, bouncy and fluttering. Alternates rapid wing beats with pulling wings to body.
Yellow-faced Grassquit
Yellow-faced Grassquit: This tiny finch has olive upperparts, pale olive underparts, black face, breast and upper belly, yellow eyebrow and throat patch, and a conical, sharply pointed bill. Forages on the ground for seeds; also feeds on berries, small fruits and insects. It has a weak fluttering flight, alternating rapid wing beats with wings pulled to the sides. Sexes are similar.
Rock Ptarmigan
Rock Ptarmigan: Small grouse with black, brown, and buff mottled upperparts, white underparts with variable dark mottling, and white wings. Head shows a dark eyestripe. Red combs over the eyes can be retracted or exposed. It has feathers on legs and toes to help it walk in the snow and stay warm.
Scaled Quail
Scaled Quail: Large quail AKA "cottontop," due to its white-tipped gray crest; nape, neck underparts have dark-edged gray and buff feathers creating a distinctly scaled look. Upperparts are plain gray with white stripe at base of wings; sides are gray with short white stripes. Pale brown legs, feet.
Gray-crowned Yellowthroat
Gray-crowned Yellowthroat: Large warbler rarly seen in the U.S. Upperparts are olive-brown to olive-gray with a grayer head, distinctive black mark between bill and eyes, and broken white eye-ring. The upper mandible is black and lower mandible is pink. Underparts are yellow with gray wash on sides.
Roadside Hawk
Roadside Hawk: This small, long legged tropical species common from Mexico to Argentina is casual in winter to the Rio Grande Valley. Gray-brown upperparts and rufous belly with white to buff coarse bars. Tail is banded with white tip. Flies with stiff, rapid wingbeats and hunts along roadsides.
Black Francolin
Black Francolin: The male has a black head and breast flanks with white spots, rufous collar and belly, a brown crown and white cheek patches. The legs and feet are orange. The female is similar but dull, with no cheek patch, and the collar is replaced with a nuchal patch; head and underparts are buff where the male shows black. It eats plants and insects. It has a short direct flight.
Hawaiian Hawk
Hawaiian Hawk: Two color morphs exist. The light morph is dark brown above, cream below with brown flecks on upper breast, and the dark morph is dark-brown overall with variably gray and brown tinge along underparts. It has a black bill with yellow cere and pale yellow legs and feet. Diet includes rodents and small birds. Flap-and-glide flight with some soaring. The female is larger in size.
Cinnamon Hummingbird
Cinnamon Hummingbird: Medium size, bicolored hummingbird with bronze green upperparts and cinnamon colored underparts. The tail is square, rufous with gold-green edging. This promiscuous bird attracts a female by flying back and forth like a swing. Both sexes are protective of feeding territories.
Hawaiian Goose
Hawaiian Goose: This is medium-sized goose has a black head, face and crown and cream-colored cheeks. The upperparts are heavily barred gray-brown, and the underparts are finely barred. The bill and feet are black and only partially webbed. Diet includes seeds, berries and grasses. Strong deep wing beats. State bird of Hawaii. Sexes are similar in appearance, but males are typically larger. Formerly know as the Nene or Nene Goose. The name was changed in 2014 by the American Ornithologist Union.
Cackling Goose
Cackling Goose: This small to medium-sized goose has a mottled gray-brown body, black legs, tail, neck, head and face, with a white chin strap stretching from ear to ear and a white rump band. The bill is small and triangular. It eats a variety of plant species and parts, especially grasses, sedges, grain and berries. Strong deep wing beats. Sexes are similar; the male is larger.
Loggerhead Shrike
Loggerhead Shrike: Medium shrike with gray upperparts and paler gray underparts. Mask is black and throat is white. Bill is heavy and slightly hooked. Wings are black with white patches. Tail is long, black, and white-edged. Low, swift flight, alternates rapid wing beats with wings pulled to sides.
Dickcissel
Dickcissel: Medium-sized, stocky, sparrow-like bird. The Male (shown in background) has a dark gray back and head, and black-streaked shoulders. Face is gray with yellow eyestripe and breast is yellow. V-shaped bib is black. Wings are brown with chestnut-brown patches. The female (shown in foreground) and winter adult have brown streaked upperparts and no black bib. The juvenile is brown and streaked.
Indigo Bunting
Indigo Bunting: Small finch with brilliant, almost iridescent, blue plumage. Crown is darker blue with a purple tint. Wings and tail are black with blue edges. Feeds on insects, larvae, grains, seeds, berries. Short flights low over vegetation, alternates rapid wing beats with wings pulled to sides.
Barn Swallow
Barn Swallow: Medium swallow with glittering blue-black upperparts, red-brown forehead, chin and throat. Dark blue-black breast band, belly is white to orange. Tail is deeply forked with long outer streamers. Black legs and feet. It is the most abundant and widely distributed swallow in the world.
Lawrence's Goldfinch
Lawrence's Goldfinch: Small finch with gray nape and back and yellow-gray rump. Underparts are white; breast is yellow. Cap and face are black. Wings are dark with bright yellow bars. Feeds on seeds and insects. Swift bounding flight, alternates rapid wing beats with wings pulled briefly to sides.
Lesser Goldfinch
Lesser Goldfinch: Small finch with dark back (black in the east, dark green in the west), black crown, bright yellow underparts. Wings, tail black with white markings. Forages in shrubs, brush, weedy fields for seeds and insects. Swift flight, alternates rapid wing beats with wings pulled to sides.
Field Sparrow
Field Sparrow: Medium sparrow, rufous back with dark streaks, unstreaked, buff breast. Gray-brown rump. Gray head, rufous cap, and white eye-ring. Pink bill, legs and feet. Forages on ground or low shrubbery. Short flights, alternates rapid wing beats with brief periods of wings pulled to the sides.
American Robin
American Robin: Large, familiar North American thrush, gray-brown upperparts, rich red-brown breast, and white lower belly and undertail coverts. Head appears black with white splotches surrounding the eyes, and throat is white with black streaks. Juvenile has heavily spotted underparts. Swift, direct flight on rapidly beating wings.
Sanderling
Sanderling: This medium-sized sandpiper has dark-spotted, rufous upperparts and breast, white underparts and black bill, legs and feet. Wings have conspicuous white stripes visible in flight. Feeds on crustaceans, mollusks, isopods, worms, plants and insects. Swift direct flight with rapid wing beats. Sexes are similar.
Rose-breasted Grosbeak
Rose-breasted Grosbeak: Large finch, black head, back, bright red breast, and white rump, sides, belly. The wings are black with white patches above and red, white, black below. Long, slightly notched black tail with white patches. Female has brown streaked upperparts, buff streaked underparts and yellow wing linings. Eats seeds, caterpillars, insects, tree flowers, fruits and berries.
Blue Grosbeak
Blue Grosbeak: Large finch, bright purple-blue body, black face, and two wide, brown wingbars. Dark wings, tail. Hops on ground to forage. Gleans from bushes, weeds and trees. Feeds on insects, snails, grains, seeds and fruits. Swift flight, alternates rapid wing beats with wings pulled to sides.
Brown Shrike
Brown Shrike: Small shrike, with warm brown upperparts and buff underparts. Face is white with black mask; throat is white. Bill is short, heavy, and hooked. Tail is long and round-tipped with faint bars. Eats small snakes, rodents, birds and insect. Low, swift flight on shallow, rapid wing beats.
Mourning Dove
Mourning Dove: This medium-sized dove has gray-brown upperparts and pink-brown underparts. The eyes are dark with a small black spot beneath. It has a dark bill, gray-brown wings with black spots and dark primaries. The tail is long and pointed, with black-edged white tips on outer feathers. Mostly feeds on seeds. Swift direct flight. Sexes are similar, but the male is slightly larger.
Black Phoebe
Black Phoebe: Medium flycatcher, mostly black body and white belly. Outer tail feathers and undertail coverts are white. Bill, legs, feet are black. Feeds primarily on insects, sometimes small fish. Weak fluttering bouyant flight with shallow wing beats. Sallies from perch to catch insects in air.
Black-bellied Plover
Black-bellied Plover: This medium-sized shorebird has black upperparts vividly marked with a white spot on each feather. It has a black face, throat and belly and white forehead and crown that extends over the eye, down the back and sides of the neck. Vent and wing stripe visible in flight. Strong direct flight with powerful rapid wing beats. Feeds on marine worms and insects. Sexes are similar.
Northern Mockingbird
Northern Mockingbird: This medium-sized bird has gray upperparts, paler gray underparts and a faint eye line. The wings are gray-black with two white bars and large white patches, visible when spread. It has a long, gray tail edged with white, yellow eyes and black legs and feet. Feeds on fruit and insects. Several quick wing strokes alternated with wings pulled to the sides. Sexes are similar.
European Starling
European Starling: Small, chunky, iridescent purple and green blackbird with long, pointed yellow bill, pink legs, and short tail. The feathers on back and undertail show buff edges. Feeds in open areas, normally on the ground. Strong, direct and swift flight on rapidly beating wings.
Rock Pigeon
Rock Pigeon: This is a large, highly variably colored dove. The wild form has a gray body, dark blue-gray head, neck, breast, and white rump. The wings are gray with two black bars. It has a gray rounded tail with a dark terminal band. Forages on the ground; feeds on grass, seeds, grains, clover and berries. Swift direct flight. Sexes are similar.
Tree Swallow
Tree Swallow: Medium-sized swallow with iridescent blue-green upperparts and white underparts. The wings are dark gray and tail is dark and forked. Black bill, legs and feet. Swift, graceful flight, alternates slow, deep wing beats with short or long glides. Turns back sharply on insects it passes.
Cliff Swallow
Cliff Swallow: Small, stocky swallow, dark blue-gray upperparts, pale orange-brown rump, buff underparts. Forehead is white or buff while throat, sides of face are orange-brown. Crown is blue-black, bill is short and black. Tail is dark and squared. Legs and feet are gray. Catches insects in flight.
Northern Rough-winged Swallow
Northern Rough-winged Swallow: Small, stocky swallow, brown upperparts, paler underparts, pale brown throat. Tail is squared with white undertail coverts. Named for tiny hooks found on outer primary feathers. Swift, graceful flight, alternates several slow, deep wing beats with short or long glides.
Black Turnstone
Black Turnstone: Medium sandpiper, scaled black upperparts, white spot between eye and bill, black breast with white speckles on sides, and white belly. Short, dark bill slightly upturned. Back, wings, and rump display a dramatic black-and-white pattern in flight. Swift flight on rapid wing beats.
Lewis's Woodpecker
Lewis's Woodpecker: Medium woodpecker with dark green-black upperparts and hood. Face is dark red, collar is gray, belly is pale red. The bill, legs and feet are black. It was named for Meriwether Lewis of the Lewis and Clark expedition. Its dark plumage sets it apart from all other North American woodpeckers.
Northern Flicker
Northern Flicker: Medium woodpecker, black-barred brown back, white rump, black tail. Underparts are black-spotted pale brown with black crescent on breast. Face is gray with brown crown and forehead. Legs and feet are gray. There is a Red-shafted (shown here) and a Yellow-shafted race.
Ring-necked Pheasant
Ring-necked Pheasant: This large chicken-like pheasant has a metallic-brown body, iridescent green head, white neck ring, red eye patch and wattles, and a long pointed tail. Female is pale brown overall with dark markings, has shorter tail and lacks wattle. Diet includes seeds and insects. Swift direct flight with strong wing beats. First introduced to California from Asia as a game bird in 1857.
Rhinoceros Auklet
Rhinoceros Auklet: Medium-sized seabird with black upperparts, dark gray underparts, and white belly. Eyes have long white plumes above and below. Bill is yellow with pale horn. Legs and feet are gray. Swims and dives for crustaceans and small fish. Fast direct flight with rapid wing beats.
Common Ground-Dove
Common Ground-Dove: Small, rounded dove with plain gray-brown back and scaled pink-gray head and breast. Eyes are red and bill is orange-red with black tip. The wings show rufous primaries in flight. Tail is short. Legs and feet are pink. Forages on ground. Swift direct flight with rapid wing beats.
Greater Yellowlegs
Greater Yellowlegs: This large sandpiper has mottled brown, gray and white upperparts. The underparts are white with dark streaks and spots. The bill is slightly upturned and the legs are long and yellow. Its long barred tail and white rump are conspicuous in flight. It feeds on insects, insect larvae and small fish. It has a swift direct flight, sometimes at great heights. Sexes are similar.
Chestnut-collared Longspur
Chestnut-collared Longspur: Small, sparrow-like bird with brown-streaked upperparts, black breast and flanks, some have chestnut on underparts, pale gray belly. Face is buff with black stripe behind eye. Nape is chestnut-brown, crown is black, and throat is white. Tail is black with strongly contrasting white outer tail feathers.
Greater Sage-Grouse
Greater Sage Grouse: Largest North American grouse, has scaled gray-brown upperparts, white breast, black throat, bib, and belly, and yellow combs above eyes. Large, white collar-like patch on breast conceals two yellow air sacs displayed during courtship. Tail feathers are long and pointed.
Clay-colored Sparrow
Clay-colored Sparrow: Medium sparrow with black-streaked brown upperparts and buff underparts. The face is pale with finely streaked crown, crisp brown cheek patch, white eyestripe, and gray nape. Pink-gray legs and feet. Short flight, alternates several rapid wing beats with wings pulled to sides.
Cassin's Sparrow
Cassin's Sparrow: Medium, skulking grassland sparrow, fine brown streaks on gray-brown head and back, buff underparts. Tail is long, rounded, white-tipped. Legs, feet are pink-orange. Forages by scratching on the ground. Short flight, alternates several rapid wing beats with wings pulled to sides.
Long-billed Curlew
Long-billed Curlew: Very large sandpiper with brown mottled upperparts, buff-brown underparts with dark streaks and spots. Bill is very long, decurved. Cinnamon-brown underwings visible in flight. Feeds by probing mud with bill or dunking head under water. Direct flight, steady, strong wing beats.
White-winged Dove
White-winged Dove: Medium-sized, stout dove with gray-brown upperparts, gray underparts, and small, black crescent below eye. The wings are dark gray with broad white stripes. Tail is short and brown with white corners. Bill is gray. Legs and feet are red. Fast direct flight with rapid wing beats.
American Pipit
American Pipit: Small pipit, gray-brown upperparts and pale buff underparts; breast is faintly to darkly streaked. Tail is dark with white edges. Black bill is thin and long. Legs and feet are black. It can be distinguished from sparrows by its longer bill and habit of wagging its tail up and down.
White Wagtail
White Wagtail: Medium-sized wagtail, mostly white except for black upperparts and upper breast. All-white wing appears as a white wing patch when folded. The tail is black with white outer tail feathers that are conspicuous in flight and flicked continually when walking. Black bill, legs and feet.
Chimney Swift
Chimney Swift: Medium-sized swift, uniformly dark brown with slightly paler throat and upper breast. Inconspicuous spines extend past web at tips of tail feathers. Bill, legs and feet are black. Flight is rapid and batlike on swept-back wings, alternates with gliding. Soars on thermals and updrafts.
Chipping Sparrow
Chipping Sparrow: Medium, slender sparrow with black-streaked brown back and pale gray underparts. Cap is rufous, nape is gray, throat is white, and face stripes are black-and-white. Black bill. Pink-orange legs and feet. Short flight, alternates several rapid wing beats with wings pulled to sides.
Baird's Sparrow
Baird's Sparrow: Small sparrow with pale-streaked, rich dark brown upperparts, white underparts, and dark streaks on upper breast and flanks. Orange-brown crown is marked with fine dark lines. Legs and feet are pink-brown. Short low flights, alternates rapid wing beats with wings pulled to sides.
Western Sandpiper
Western Sandpiper: This small sandpiper has chestnut-brown, scaled upperparts, white underparts dotted with rows of dark chevrons, streaked head with brown wash on face, dark bill with decurved tip, thin white stripes visible on dark wings in flight, black legs and feet, and partial webbing between toes. Eats mostly flies and beetles. Swift direct flight with rapid wing beats. Sexes are similar.
White-collared Swift
White-collared Swift: Very large swift, gray-black overall with blue gloss on breast and back. White collar is distinct. Bill, legs and feet are black. The flight is strong and fast. Rapid shallow wing beats followed with long glides. Soars on thermals and updrafts, ranging many miles daily to feed.
Purple Martin
Purple Martin: Large, vocal swallow with glossy dark purple-blue body and forked tail. It is the largest North American swallow. Black bill, legs and feet. Stong, graceful flight, alternates a few rapid wing beats with long glides. Catches and eats insects in flight and also forages on the ground.
Dunlin
Dunlin: This is a medium-sized bird with black-streaked, red-brown upperparts, a black belly patch and a streaked breast. The black bill is long and slightly decurved. The legs and feet are black. It wades in shallows and uses its bill to probe and pick up food. The diet includes marine worms, crustaceans and mollusks. It has a swift direct flight with rapid wing beats. The sexes are similar.
Short-billed Dowitcher
Short-billed Dowitcher: This large sandpiper has mottled gray, black, brown and red-brown upperparts, white rump, red-brown underparts with spots and bars, a long, straight dark bill and long, dark yellow-green legs. East and west coast birds are heavier barred and spotted, paler underparts and often show white bellies. Diet includes insects and crustaceans. Strong direct flight. Sexes similar.
Marbled Godwit
Marbled Godwit: This large sandpiper has black-marked, dark brown upperparts, and lightly barred, chestnut-brown underparts. It has a long pink bill with a black tip that is slightly upcurved. Its pale brown under wings are visible in flight. Feeds on crustaceans, mollusks, worms, insects, seeds and berries. It has a swift and direct flight. Sexes similar, but male is smaller with a brighter bill base.
Brewer's Sparrow
Brewer's Sparrow: Medium sparrow with finely streaked gray-brown upperparts, pale eye-ring, dark moustache stripe, and plain, pale gray underparts. Bill is pink with dark tip. Legs and feet are gray-pink. Short flights with rapidly beating wing strokes alternating with wings pulled briefly to sides.
Ruffed Grouse
Ruffed Grouse: Medium-sized grouse with crested head and scaled brown upperparts. White underparts have pale brown bars on breast and dark brown bars on belly and flanks. Sides of neck have black ruff. The tail is brown with fine, white bars and white-edged dark band at tip. Northern form is grayer.
Black-and-white Warbler
Black-and-white Warbler: Small, black-and-white striped warbler with a white median head stripe bordered by black. Black bill, legs and feet. It forages unlike any other warbler by moving up and down the trunks of trees and crawling under and over branches in a style similar to that of a nuthatch.
Common Yellowthroat
Common Yellowthroat: Small, skulking warbler with olive-yellow upperparts, bright yellow throat and breast, and pale gray belly. The head has a black mask with a thick white border above, black bill. Legs are pink. Slow weak flight, alternates periods of rapid wing beats with wings pulled to sides.
Swainson's Hawk
Swainson's Hawk: Large hawk, dark brown upperparts, white throat, rufous upper breast, pale buff underparts. Tail is gray with faint bars, dark terminal band, and white trailing edge. Yellow legs, feet. Alternates series of powerful deep wing beats with long glides. Soars on thermals and updrafts.
Cattle Egret
Cattle Egret: Small, stocky egret with a white body and pale orange-brown patches on the head, neck and back. The eyes, bill and legs are orange. This is the only white egret with both a yellow bill and yellow legs. It feeds primarily on insects. It has a direct flight on quick steady wing beats. The sexes are similar.
Little Blue Heron
Little Blue Heron: This medium-sized, slender heron has a slate-gray body and a purple-blue head and neck. The eyes are yellow and the bill is dark gray with a black tip. The legs and feet are dark. It feeds on small crustaceans, invertebrates and large insects. It has a direct flight with steady quick wing beats. The sexes are similar.
Ferruginous Hawk
Ferruginous Hawk: Large hawk, white head, streaked, rust-brown shoulders, back, and feathered legs. Underparts have scattered rufous streaks. Gray-brown wings. Tail is white with rust-brown wash. Dark morph is red-brown with white flight feathers. Alternates deep flaps and glides, soars on thermals.
Red-tailed Hawk
Red-tailed Hawk: Large, highly variable hawk with brown upperparts, head and throat. The underparts are pale with brown streaks. Wings are pale below with dark bar at leading edge and dark tips. The tail is red-brown with dark terminal band. Legs and feet are yellow. Soars on thermals and updrafts.
Rough-legged Hawk
Rough-legged Hawk: This large hawk has brown upperparts, paler, streaked head, brown-spotted white breast, dark breast band, and fully feathered legs. The wings are pale below and dark-edged. The upper half of the tail is white, lower half is finely banded. It feeds on small mammals and some birds. Alternates powerful flaps with glides. Hangs in wind and hovers over one spot. Sexes are similar.
Prairie Falcon
Prairie Falcon: Medium falcon with brown upperparts, dark-spotted pale underparts, dark brown moustache stripe. Dark underwing-bars visible in flight. Feeds on small birds and mammals, and large insects. Swift flight with rapid wing beats. Sometimes alternates several rapid wing beats with a glide.
Crested Caracara
Crested Caracara: Large, ground-dwelling falcon, black body, finely barred tail, wing panels and upper breast. Head crest is black, facial skin is red, and large bill is blue-gray and hooked. Legs are long and yellow. Strong steady wing beats alternated with long to short glides. Soars on thermals.
American Kestrel
American Kestrel: Small North American Kestrel, has two distinct black facial stripes, rust-brown tail and back, slate-blue wings, black-spotted underparts. Female is brown-barred above with brown-streaked white underparts. Eats bats, rodents, insects, frogs, small reptiles, and birds. Alternates several rapid wing beats with glides, also hovers. Soars on thermals.
Tricolored Heron
Tricolored Heron: Medium heron, blue-gray upperparts, head, neck, wings, paler rump, white stripe on foreneck, white belly. Also has white plumes on back of head and rust-brown plumes on lower neck, back during the breeding season. Bill and legs are olive-brown. Direct flight on steady wing beats.
Sandhill Crane
Sandhill Crane: This large wading bird has a gray body, white cheeks, chin, and upper throat, and a bright red cap. It has a dark bill, yellow eyes and black legs and feet. It has a direct steady flight on heavy and labored wing beats, with a slow down stroke and a rapid and jerky upstroke. Flies in V or straight line formations. Diet is heavy in seeds and cultivated grains. Sexes are similar.
Whooping Crane
Whooping Crane: Adults are nearly all white except for red crown, black mask, and black primary feathers most visible in flight. The juvenile has rust-brown head and upper neck, and brown wash over mostly white body. Very rare bird; near extinction. Feeds on frogs, fish, mollusks, small mammals and crustaceans, grain and roots of water plants. Direct flight; slow downward wing beat and a powerful flick on the upbeat.
Short-eared Owl
Short-eared Owl: Medium owl, light and dark brown mottled upperparts and dark-streaked, pale buff underparts. Head has large, round, pale buff facial disk with fine, brown tinges, black around eyes, and small ear tufts. Eyes are yellow and bill is black. Flight is erratic with flopping wing beats.
Snowy Owl
Snowy Owl: Large, white owl with variable black bars and spots. The head is round and lacks tufts, eyes are yellow, and the bill is black. Feathered feet and toes provide protection from the arctic cold. Direct flap-and-glide flight with powerful, deep wingbeats. North America's only all-white owl.
Northern Pygmy-Owl
Northern Pygmy-Owl: Small owl, upperparts and sides range from brown to white-spotted gray-brown or gray. White underparts have brown stripes. Head is brown or gray with white spots; no ear tufts. Yellow eyes have white eyebrows. White-bordered black spots on back of head resemble a pair of eyes.
Barn Owl
Barn Owl: This medium-sized owl has a glaring white, heart-shaped facial disk, no ear tufts and long legs. The upperparts are orange-brown with fine white spots and dark bars, and the underparts are white with small black spots. It feeds primarily on small mammals and also takes small birds. It has a slow, silent moth-like flight. Sexes are similar, but females are darker in color than the males.
Burrowing Owl
Burrowing Owl: Small ground-dwelling owl, mostly brown with numerous white spots and no ear tufts. Eyes are yellow. White chin and throat. Tail is short, and legs are long. Bouyant, erratic flight with slow, silent wingbeats. May hover briefly above prey. The scientific name means "little digger."
Long-eared Owl
Long-eared Owl: Medium-sized owl with gray-brown body with pale bars and heavy streaks on underparts. The facial disc is rufous with white a patch below the bill. The ear tufts are close together, long, black and rufous, and are not visible in flight. Bouyant, mothlike flight with silent wing beats.
Mississippi Kite
Mississippi Kite: Small kite, dark gray upperparts, pale gray underparts and head. Eyes are red. Upperwings are dark gray with pale gray patches. Tail is long and black. Feeds on large flying insects. Bouyant flight with steady wing beats, alternates several wing strokes with short to long glides.
Northern Harrier
Northern Harrier: This large hawk has gray upperparts, white rump, and white underparts with spotted breast. It has a dark hooked bill with a yellow base, yellow eyes, legs and feet. Long wings are gray above and white below with black tips. Females are brown above with varying degrees of brown and buff streaking below. Feeds mainly on small mammals. Alternates several deep wing beats with glides.
White-tailed Kite
White-tailed Kite: Small hawk with gray upperparts, black shoulders, and white face and underparts. Eyes are red, bill is black. Underwings are white and gray with dark patches at bend. Tail is square, pale gray, and shorter than folded wings. Legs and feet are gray. Soars on thermals and updrafts.
Western Screech-Owl
Western Screech-Owl: Small owl (kennicotti), distinct ear tufts, brown- or gray-mottled upperparts, white shoulder spots, streaked, barred underparts. Lightly mottled facial disk, has prominent dark rim. Yellow eyes, dark gray bill. Until recently considered the same species as Eastern Screech-Owl.
Boreal Owl
Boreal Owl: Medium owl, white-spotted, brown upperparts and thick brown-streaked, white underparts. Head is black with numerous small white spots, facial disks bordered with black, eyes are yellow-orange. Short flights have rapid wingbeats, longer ones are bouyant with shallow, silent wing beats.
Golden Eagle
Golden Eagle: Large raptor with dark brown body and golden-brown feathers on back of head and nape. Eyes and bill are dark. Cere is yellow. Legs are completely feathered. Feet are yellow. Alternates deep slow wing beats with glides, soars on thermals. Has been clocked in a steep glide at 120 mph.
Wrentit
Wrentit: Small, noisy songbird with dark gray-brown upperparts, thick streaked, red-brown to buff-brown underparts. Bill is short and black. Tail is very long and dark. Eyes are creamy white, bill is short and gray. Legs and feet are gray. Northern birds have darker upperparts than southern birds.
Dark-eyed Junco
Dark-eyed Junco: Medium-sized sparrow with considerable geographic color variation, although all exhibit a pink bill, dark eyes, white belly, and dark-centered tail with white outer feathers. Gray-headed form has gray head, rump, breast, and sides, and rust-brown back. Slate-colored form is slate-gray overall with darker head. Oregon form has black hood, chestnut-brown back and buff-brown flanks. White-winged form is blue-gray overall and shows two white wing bars. Pink-sided form is blue-gray with darker wings and pink-gray flanks. Female of each form resembles male but is usually paler. Juveniles of all forms are heavily streaked brown with darker heads, white bellies, and white outer tail feathers.
White-crowned Sparrow
White-crowned Sparrow: Medium-sized sparrow with brown-streaked upperparts, small white throat patch, and plain gray underparts. The white crown has distinct black lines. Wings are brown with two pale bars. Short flights, alternates rapid wing beats with brief periods of the wings pulled to sides.
American Crow
American Crow: Large, black bird with dark, stout bill, iridescent violet gloss on body, and blue-black wings. Tail is fan-shaped in flight. Eats insects, small invertebrates, amphibians, reptiles and mammals, eggs and young of other birds, grains, fruits, refuse, and carrion. Steady direct flight.
Brewer's Blackbird
Brewer's Blackbird: Medium-sized blackbird with purple gloss on head and neck and green gloss on body and wings. Eyes are yellow. Follows farm tractors and plows. Forages on ground. Feeds on caterpillars, insects, fruits, seeds and grains. Strong, swift and direct flight with rapidly beating wings.
Brown-headed Cowbird
Brown-headed Cowbird: Small blackbird with glossy brown head, heavy bill, and dark eyes. The black body has a faint green sheen. Walks on ground to forage and holds tail cocked over back. Feeds on caterpillars, insects, spiders, fruits, grains and seeds. Swift direct flight with rapid wing beats.
Red-winged Blackbird
Red-winged Blackbird: Small blackbird with jet-black body and bright red shoulder patches edged with yellow on bottom. Runs or hops while foraging on the ground. Eats seeds, grains, berries, fruits, insects, caterpillars, spiders, snails, grubs and mollusks. Strong direct flight on rapid wing beats.
Song Sparrow
Song Sparrow: Medium sparrow, heavily streaked gray-brown upperparts. Dull white underparts have dark central breast spot, thick streaks. Head has brown crown, paler median stripe, pale gray eyebrow, white chin, dark brown moustache stripe. Rust-brown wings. Tail is long, usually tinged rust-brown.
Western Meadowlark
Western Meadowlark: This short stocky, ground-dwelling bird has dark-streaked brown upperparts, bright yellow underparts, and a broad black V on the breast. It has a dark brown-and-white striped crown, sharply pointed bill and brown tail with white edges. Feeds mostly on insects but also eats seeds. Flies low, with rapid shallow stiff wing beats followed by short glides. Sexes are similar.
Golden-crowned Sparrow
Golden-crowned Sparrow: Large sparrow, brown-streaked upperparts and plain gray breast. Yellow crown is bordered by a wide black cap; cheek and collar are black. Bill is gray. Wings are brown with two white bars. Short flights, alternates rapid wing beats with brief periods of wings pulled to sides.
Mew Gull
Mew Gull: Medium-sized gull with gray back and upperwings, and white head, neck, breast, and belly. Bill is bright yellow. Wings have white-spotted black tips; tail is white. Feet and legs are dull yellow. Graceful, bouyant flight. Undulating, with several rapid wingbeats and a pause.
Bewick's Wren
Bewick's Wren: Small wren with unstreaked, gray to red-brown upperparts and plain white underparts. White eyebrows are conspicuous. Tail is long and white-edged with dark bars. Bill is long and slightly decurved. Legs and feet are gray. Eastern populations are red-brown, Northwestern birds are more brown, and Western Interior birds are gray-brown. Eastern populations have seriously declined since the 1960s.
Black-billed Magpie
Black-billed Magpie: Large, noisy jay, mostly black, with very long tail and dark, stout bill. Wings and tail are iridescent blue and green-black. White belly and sides. Eats insects, larvae, carrion. Direct flight on shallow, steady wing beats. Often glides between perches or from perch to ground.
House Sparrow
House Sparrow: This medium-sized stocky sparrow has black-streaked brown upperparts, pale gray underparts, brown wings with a single white bar, pale gray cheeks and crown, black throat, upper breast, and a short, thick, black conical bill. Female lacks black and is pale gray-brown overall with buff eyebrows. Feeds mostly on grains and seeds. Agile fliers with an undulating flight pattern.
Canada Goose
Canada Goose: This long-necked goose has a large gray-brown body, large webbed feet and a wide flat bill. It has dark upperparts, paler underparts, a white vent, cheeks and chinstrap, and a black head and neck. Strong deep wing beats. Strong powerful direct flight. Flies in a in V formation in migration. Feeds on grasses, sedges, berries and seeds. Sexes are similar, but males are larger.
Peregrine Falcon
Peregrine Falcon: This medium-sized falcon has blue-gray upperparts and heavily barred sides, belly and leggings. The breast may vary from white to spotted and barred. It has a black hood and sideburns, yellow fleshy eye ring, and yellow legs and feet. Feeds primarily on birds, which it takes in midair. Direct flight with rapid wing beats. Sexes look alike, but the female is a little bigger.
Gyrfalcon
Gyrfalcon: Large northern falcon with three color morphs: dark, white, and gray. Dark morph is dark gray with pale streaks on throat and upper breast. White morph is white with dark spots and markings on wings, nape, and sides. Gray morph is a mix. The eyes, bill, and legs of all morphs are yellow.
Horned Grebe
Horned Grebe: Small grebe, red-brown neck, breast and flanks, nearly black throat and back. Head has black cap, white face, conspicuous buff-orange to yellow ear plumes. Bill is dark with white tip, eyes are dark red. Feeds on aquatic insects, fish and crustaceans. Direct flight on rapid wing beats.
Northern Shoveler
Northern Shoveler: This is a medium-sized dabbling duck with a large spoon-shaped bill. Males have a dark green head, dark bill, orange legs, yellow eyes, white breast and chestnut patch on the flanks; females are mottled light brown with orange-brown bill and legs and dark eyes. They feed mostly on aquatic plants and seeds. They have a strong direct flight with powerful rapid wing beats.
Blue Jay
Blue Jay: Medium, noisy jay with bright blue upperparts, pale gray underparts, distinct head crest, and neck surrounded with a curious black necklace. Black-barred wings and tail have prominent white patches. Direct flight with steady and bouyant wing beats. Glides between perches or to the ground.
Killdeer
Killdeer: This large banded plover has brown upperparts, white underparts, two distinct black bands cross upper breast and white stripes on the wings that are visible in flight. The tail and rump show rust-brown in flight. It has a black bill, pink-brown legs and feet. Feeds primarily on insects. It has a wavering, erratic flight; capable of swift direct flight. Sexes are similar.
Northern Pintail
Northern Pintail: This large duck has gray and black upperparts, white neck and underparts, gray sides, long black pointed tail, brown head, throat and nape. White stripe divides front and back of neck, green speculum is bordered by buff. Feeds on seeds and aquatic insects. Females are mottled brown all over with slim, tan head, long neck and a shorter tail. Direct flight with rapid wing beats.
American Goldfinch
American Goldfinch: Male is a small, noisy finch with a bright yellow body, black cap, wings, and tail, and white rump and undertail coverts. Wings have flashy white patches and bright yellow shoulder bar. Bill is pink and conical. Female is duller with olive back and lacks black cap and yellow shoulder bars. Winter male has olive-gray to olive-brown upperparts, paler underparts, yellow shoulder bar, white wing bar, dark bill, and may show black on forehead and yellow on throat and face. Winter female is duller with buff wing and shoulder bars, and lacks yellow and black on face and head. Juvenile resembles winter female but has yellow wash on throat and breast.
Chihuahuan Raven
Chihuahuan Raven: Small raven, entirely metallic blue-black except for inconspicuous white neck feathers which are infrequently displayed. Eyes are pale brown. Alternates between several deep wing beats and short to long glides. Glides from altitude to perch or ground. Soars on thermals, updrafts.
Long-billed Dowitcher
Long-billed Dowitcher: This large, stocky sandpiper has dark, mottled upperparts, dark cap and eye stripe, short white eyebrow, and red-brown underparts with lightly barred flanks. The bill is long, dark and dagger-like, and the legs and feet are yellow-green. It feeds on insects and insect larvae, mollusks, crustaceans and marine worms. Swift direct flight, rapid wing beats. Sexes are similar.
Long-tailed Jaeger
Long-tailed Jaeger: Smallest but most buoyant and graceful jaeger or skua, with gray upperparts, white breast and gray belly. Black cap covers eyes, crosses chin and ends at yellow nape. Upperwings are dark edged. Tail is gray with black edges and long black streamers. Legs are blue-gray and toes are webbed. Sexes are similar. Juvenile is heavily barred and spotted gray; has white patches on underwings, white throat, white belly and dark-tipped gray bill. Dark juvenile is darker overall; has gray throat and lacks white belly.
Long-toed Stint
Long-toed Stint: Medium sandpiper, scaled, brown, black and rufous upperparts, white-sided rump, white underparts, black-spotted sides, upper breast. Head has brown crown, white eyebrows. Dark decurved bill. Wings have white bars visible in flight. White tail has black central stripe, gray edges.
Jack Snipe
Jack Snipe: Medium, stocky sandpiper, mottled brown upperparts, paler underparts. Eyestripe is dark. Yellow stripes on back are visible in flight. Eats mollusks, insects, larvae, worms and seeds. Weak flight with rapid, shallow wing beats.
Lesser Yellowlegs
Lesser Yellowlegs: This large sandpiper has gray and black mottled upperparts, white underparts, and streaked upper breast and sides. The bill is straight and uniformly dark gray. The white lower rump and dark-barred tail are visible in flight. The legs are long and yellow. It feeds on aquatic and terrestrial invertebrates. It has a swift direct flight with rapid wing beats. Sexes are similar.
Little Stint
Little Stint: This medium-sized sandpiper has scaled-brown upperparts and white underparts. The face, neck and breast are rust-brown with black spots. The back has white lines that form a V-pattern in flight. It has a black bill, legs and feet. It feeds by pecking at the surface and probing mud with its bill for small invertebrates. It has a direct flight with rapid wing beats. Sexes are similar.
Red Knot
Red Knot: This medium-sized sandpiper has black, brown and gray scaled upperparts, a red-brown face, neck, breast and sides, and a white lower belly. It has a slightly curved black bill. The wings show white bars in flight. Diet includes insects, larvae, mollusks and crabs. It has a swift direct flight with rapid wing beats. Sexes are similar.
Red-necked Stint
Red-necked Stint: This small sandpiper has mottled brown upperparts and streaked cap. Underparts are white; upper breast is rust-brown and spotted. The face and throat are rust-brown and the bill, legs and feet are black. Forages on shore; sometimes probes mud. Feeds on algae and aquatic plants, insects and insect larvae. Swift direct flight with rapid wing beats. Sexes are similar.
Ruddy Turnstone
Ruddy Turnstone: This medium-sized sandpiper has red-brown upperparts, white rump and underparts, and a black-marked face. It has a short, dark, slightly upturned bill, a white tail with a black terminal band, and orange legs and feet. The wings have a unique brown, black, and white pattern visible in flight. Feeds on invertebrates. Swift direct flight with rapid wing beats. Sexes are similar.
Parasitic Jaeger
Parasitic Jaeger: The dark morph of this medium-sized jaeger has a brown body, darker cap and pale underwing patches near tips. Pale form has white underparts with brown breast band; intermediates between dark and light morphs occur. Diamond-shaped tail has elongated, pointed central feathers. Black bill, legs and feet. Alternates several deep flaps with glides and fast wing beats. Sexes are similar.
Pectoral Sandpiper
Pectoral Sandpiper: This medium-sized sandpiper has scaled, dark brown upperparts, heavily streaked brown breast, plain white belly and eye ring, dark brown crown, faint wing-bar and black rump with white edges that are visible in flight. Primarily feeds on arthropods and other invertebrates. Swift direct flight with rapid wing beats. Zigzag pattern when flushed. Sexes are similar.
Pomarine Jaeger
Pomarine Jaeger: The dar morph of this large jaeger is dark brown except for white patches near underwing tips and sides of under tail. Light morph has white neck, pale yellow collar, white lower breast, mottled breast band, sides. Thick bill, pale base, two long central feathers twisted vertically on tail. Diet includes fish and small birds. Strong steady flight with deep wing beats. Sexes are similar.
Black Rail
Black Rail: Smallest North American rail, mostly dark gray or nearly black with white-speckled back, belly, flanks. Nape and upper back are chestnut-brown. Eyes are red. Eats seeds of aquatic plants, grasses and grains, insects and small marine crustaceans. Weak fluttering flight with legs dangling.
Black Tern
Black Tern: This small tern has a black head, bill and underparts. The back, wings and tail are silver-gray, and the vent is white. The legs and feet are dark red but may appear black. It has a buoyant, direct flight with deep rapid wing beats. It hovers for insects in an uneven foraging flight. It plunge dives on occasion. The sexes appear similar.
Common Gallinule
Common Gallinule: Medium, chicken-like marsh bird with gray-brown back and slate-gray head, neck, breast, and belly. Upper flanks show distinct white line. Yellow-tipped red bill is short with red frontal plate extending onto forehead. Tail is white below. Long legs and unwebbed feet are yellow-green.
Aplomado Falcon
Aplomado Falcon: Medium falcon with slate-gray upperparts, plain white breast. White, moustache-striped face has pale eyebrows joining at back of head. Belly and legs are cinnamon-brown. Long tail banded with white and black (or gray) stripes. Swift, direct flight with deep wing beats, also hovers.
Arctic Tern
Arctic Tern: This is a medium-sized, slim tern with gray upperparts, black cap, a white rump and throat, and pale gray underparts. The tail is deeply forked and white with dark edged outer feathers. The bill is dark red. The legs and feet are red. It has a buoyant, graceful flight with steady wing beats. It feeds on small fish, crustaceans and insects. Both sexes are similar in appearance.
Bar-tailed Godwit
Bar-tailed Godwit: This large shorebird has a long upcurved bill, scaled brown, black and gray mottled upperparts and pale red-brown underparts. The tail is white with dark bars and the legs and feet are dark gray. It has a direct flight with steady wing beats. The female is larger than the male with a longer bill and has a little red-brown color. It feeds on mollusks, worms and aquatic insects.
Grasshopper Sparrow
Grasshopper Sparrow: Medium sparrow with brown-streaked upperparts and white underparts. Face, flanks, and breast are plain buff-brown. Head is flat with central white stripe though dark crown. Upper mandible is gray, while lower mandible is yellow. Pink legs and feet. Named for its insectlike song.
Harris's Hawk
Harris's Hawk: Large hawk, dark brown head, neck, back, belly and rust-brown shoulders, underwing coverts and flanks. Tail is dark brown to almost black with white base and terminal band. Undertail coverts are white. Legs and feet are yellow. Flies close to ground or soars on thermals and updrafts.
Hudsonian Godwit
Hudsonian Godwit: Large sandpiper with white-scaled, brown-black upperparts, black-barred chestnut-brown underparts. Long bill, slightly upcurved and pink with black tip. White rump, white wing-bar, black underwings visible in flight. Legs and feet are blue-gray. Swift, powerful undulating flight.
Common Tern
Common Tern: This medium-sized tern has medium gray upperparts, pale gray underparts and a glossy black cap and nape. The wings are dark-tipped with a dark leading edge on the forewing. The red bill is black-tipped, legs are red, and the tail is deeply forked and elongated. It has a direct flight, hovering above water before diving for prey. Feeds mainly on small marine fish. Sexes are similar.
Curlew Sandpiper
Curlew Sandpiper: This is a medium-sized sandpiper with mottled rufous, white and black upperparts. The head, neck and breast are a rich rufous, while vent, under tail coverts and underwings are white. It has a long black bill that is slightly decurved, and black legs and feet. It mainly feeds on insects and other small invertebrates. Swift direct flight with rapid wing beats. Sexes are similar.
Eurasian Kestrel
Eurasian Kestrel: Small falcon, spotted rufous upperparts, brown-streaked buff underparts. Gray head, black moustache stripe. Tail is black- and blue-gray banded with black tip. Feeds on large insects, small rodents and birds. Alternates rapid wing beats with a glide. Soars on thermals and updrafts.
Great-tailed Grackle
Great-tailed Grackle: Large blackbird, iridescent black body and purple sheen. Yellow eyes. Long, keeled tail. Walks on ground, wades in water to forage. Eats snails, insects, frogs, shrimp, small fish and birds, eggs and young of other birds, fruits, berries, seeds and grains. Strong direct flight.
Harris's Sparrow
Harris's Sparrow: Large sparrow with dark-streaked, brown upperparts and white underparts with dark-streaked sides. Head has stark black crown, face, and throat. Gray cheek patch is marked by a thin, black line. Bill is pink. Alternates rapid wing beats with brief periods of wings pulled to sides.
Le Conte's Sparrow
Le Conte's Sparrow: Small sparrow, brown-streaked back, brown-streaked gray nape, pale gray underparts with streaks on sides, pale yellow breast. Head is flat with brown stripes. Face is pale yellow-orange with gray cheeks. Legs, feet are pink-brown.
Yellow-headed Blackbird
Yellow-headed Blackbird: Medium-sized blackbird with black body, bright yellow hood and breast, and distinct white wing patches. Bill, legs and feet are black. Forages in low vegetation and on the ground. Feeds on insects, larvae, snails, seeds, and grains. Strong direct flight on rapid wing beats.
Black-headed Gull
Black-headed Gull: Small, white gull with partial hood, white crescents above and below eye, and white-gray back. Red bill. Wings with black tips and black bases of primaries. Sexes similar. Non-breeding adult lacks hood, black mark behind eye, and black tip on bill. Juvenile like winter adult but more black on wing and tail with black tip.
Common Grackle
Common Grackle: Medium-sized blackbird with metallic purple sheen on back, head, neck, and breast. Eyes are bright yellow. Central feathers of long, rounded tail are often lowered to show keeled V-shape. Swift, strong direct flight with rapid wing beats, holds tail folded in a V shape while flying.
Thayer's Gull
Thayer's Gull: Large gull, gray upperparts, white head, tail, underparts. Bill is yellow with red spot near the end of the lower mandible. Wings are gray with white-spotted, dark gray tips. Legs are dark pink. Direct flight, strong, steady wing beats, soars on thermals or updrafts.
Tricolored Blackbird
Tricolored Blackbird: Medium-sized blackbird that is mostly black with a glossy blue tint overall. Shoulder patches are bright red and bordered with white. Lives in flocks year round.Feeds on insects, spiders, caterpillars, and seeds from weeds and grains. Strong direct flight on rapid wing beats.
Willow Ptarmigan
Willow Ptarmigan: Small grouse, winter adult is all white with dark-edged tail and small orange-red eye combs. Summer bird has rust-brown upperparts, head, breast, white eye-ring, orange-red eye comb, white wings, belly, leg feathers; brown tail. Unlike other ptarmigans, the male stays with the female and defends its nest-it is known to attack anything that comes to close.
Lesser Nighthawk
Lesser Nighthawk: Medium-sized nightjar with gray and white mottled upperparts, white throat, and brown and white mottled underparts with dark belly bars. Wings are dark with conspicuous pale patches visible in flight. Tail is dark brown and has thin white bars across top. Darting erratic flight.
Lincoln's Sparrow
Lincoln's Sparrow: Medium sparrow, dark-streaked pale brown upperparts, white underparts with dark streaks. Head has brown crown with gray central stripe, and nape, pale eye-ring, and brown streak extending behind eye. Upper mandible is dark, lower mandible is pale orange-brown.
Rusty Blackbird
Rusty Blackbird: Medium blackbird, black overall with a dull, blue-green sheen, yellow eyes. Forages on ground of wet woodlands and fields, wades in marshes or small pools of water. Feeds on insects, caterpillars, snails, crustaceans, small fish, salamanders, fruits, grains and seeds.
Surfbird
Surfbird: Medium sandpiper, dark gray upperparts marked with rufous, white rump, white underparts marked with distinct black chevrons. Upper breast, head, neck are heavily streaked. Wings are dark with bold white stripes visible in flight. Tail is white with a black triangular tip visible in flight.
Virginia Rail
Virginia Rail: Medium rail with brown-and-black mottled upperparts, white throat, rust-brown breast, and black-and-white barred belly. Head has black crown, gray face, and white eyebrows. Bill is long, red-brown, and curved down. Legs are orange-brown. Tail is short, black above, and white below.
Whimbrel
Whimbrel: This large long-legged sandpiper has brown and white mottled upperparts and buff underparts with faint streaks on sides and flanks. It has a white-striped black crown. Neck is long and streaked; long black decurved bill, blue-gray legs and feet. Tail and rump are brown and black barred. Diet includes insects and worms. Direct flight with strong fast wing beats. Sexes are similar.
Ruff
Ruff: This large sandpiper has variably-colored frilly tufts on the neck, ranging from black to rufous, to white to speckled and barred. It has an orange-brown head, white belly, orange bill with dark drooped tip and orange-yellow legs. The female lacks ruff and is smaller than the male. Diet includes seeds, insects and other invertebrates. Low, direct flight with rapid wing beats.
Sabine's Gull
Sabine's Gull: Small gull with gray back and white nape, rump, and underparts. Hood is solid black and eye-ring is dark red. Bill is black with yellow tip; legs and feet are black. The upperwings are gray with black primaries and white secondaries. Tail is slightly forked when folded.
Spotted Redshank
Spotted Redshank: Large sandpiper, mostly black body in summer except for white rump, white spots on wings, barred tail. Bill is red with black tip. Legs and feet are dark red. Winter bird (shown) has gray upperparts and white underparts. Feeds and forages on land or in shallow water by probing in mud, and sweeping bill back and forth. Swift direct flight when flushed.
Boat-tailed Grackle
Boat-tailed Grackle: Large, black bird with a very long, keel-shaped tail. Male is iridescent blue-black with yellow or brown eyes. Black bill is slender and long. Legs and feet are gray. Forages walking on ground and wading in water. Strong direct flight with rapidly beating wings.
Greater Prairie-Chicken
Greater Prairie-Chicke: Medium grouse, barred with brown and buff (or white). Yellow-orange eye combs. Orange air sacs on both sides of the neck inflate during courtship display; long feathers on back of neck also raised during displays. Short, dark brown tail, legs are feathered to the toes.
Indian Peafowl
Indian Peafowl: This large peacock has a glossy iridescent blue head, neck and breast, white patches above and below the eye, a fan-shaped blue crest, and a long train of striking tail feathers with colorful eye-spots on each one. Feeds on seeds and insects. Female lacks the train and has a green lower neck and duller plumage. Direct flight with rapid wing beats. One of the largest flying birds. Formerly Common Peafowl, the name was changed in 2014 by the American Ornithologist Union.
White-winged Tern
White-winged Tern: Small tern, black head, body, and underwing coverts; white rump, vent, upperwing coverts, and tail; flight feathers are pale gray. Bill is dark red to black; Red legs and feet. Fluttering, uneven flight with slow, shallow wing beats. Hovers before dipping for prey.
Wilson's Phalarope
Wilson's Phalarope: This medium-sized sandpiper has gray-brown upperparts, red-brown streaks on back and shoulders, red-brown markings on white underparts, gray crown, white face, black eye-line, a black needle-like bill, gray wings and a white tail and rump. Female is brighter; paler crown and grayer upperparts. Feeds on crane flies and brine shrimp. Swift direct flight with rapid wing beats.
Yellow Rail
Yellow Rail: Small rail with pale yellow-striped, dark brown upperparts. White throat, buff breast, flanks, and belly are barred black-and-white. Head has buff face with dark brown cap, eye patches. Bill is short, yellow. Wings are dark with large white patches visible in flight. Short black tail.
Northern Shrike
Northern Shrike: Medium shrike with gray upperparts,pale gray underparts. Mask is black with white border, bill is heavy and slightly hooked. Wings are black with white patches. Tail is long, black, and white-edged. Legs and feet are black. Flight is swift and undulating on shallow rapid wing beats.
Palm Warbler
Palm Warbler: Medium warbler with olive-brown upperparts and yellow underparts streaked with brown. Cap is chestnut-brown. Western form is grayer overall and has white belly. It pumps its tail up and down more than any other warbler. Despite its name, it lives further north than most other warblers.
Yellow-breasted Chat
Yellow-breasted Chat: The largest North American warbler. Has olive-green to olive-gray upperparts, brilliant yellow throat, breast. Belly and undertail are white. Eyes have white spectacles and dark eye patches. Bill is heavy and dark. Wings and tail are olive-green. Bill, legs, and feet are black.
Yellow Warbler
Yellow Warbler: Small warbler with olive-yellow upperparts and bright yellow underparts with rust-brown streaks on breast, sides. Wings are dark. Tail is dark with yellow-tinged edges. Female lacks streaks on breast. The Golden group has an olive-brown crown and is found in the Florida Keys and West Indies. The Mangrove group has a rufous hood and is found in Central America and northern South America. Has a wider range than any other North American warbler. Eats insects, larvae, and some fruit.
Cassin's Kingbird
Cassin's Kingbird: Large flycatcher, dark olive-gray upperparts, dull yellow underparts. Mask is dark gray, throat is white and breast is gray. Tail is black with gray or white tip. Black bill, legs and feet. Bouyant fluttering flight with shallow wing beats. Hovers to take insects, berries, fruit.
Prairie Warbler
Prairie Warbler: Small warbler, brown-streaked, olive-green upperparts with reddish-brown streaking, bright yellow underparts with black streaks on sides. Head has a yellow-green cap, yellow face, and dark eye, cheek stripes. Found in pine stands, mangroves and overgrown fields rather than prairies.
Blue-winged Warbler
Blue-winged Warbler: Medium-sized warbler with olive-green upperparts and yellow underparts. The head is yellow with thin black eye line and olive-green nape. Wings are dark gray with two white bars. When its range overlaps with the Golden-winged Warrbler, it often interbreeds with or displaces it.
Long-tailed Duck
Long-tailed Duck: This small duck has black upperparts, head, neck, breast and wings; brown mottled black back, white flanks, belly, under tail coverts. Long black tail with long slender feathers, pale gray mask and black bill with dark pink saddle. Feeds on aquatic insects. Female is duller, lacks long tail, and has gray bill. Swift direct flight often with erratic side-to-side turns of body.
Sprague's Pipit
Sprague's Pipit: Medium pipit with streaked, brown upperparts, buff breast with dark streaks, and white throat and belly. Tail is brown with white edges. Thin, pale bill. Legs are yellow to pale brown. Its plumage blends well among prairie grasses, making it difficult to spot.
Arctic Warbler
Arctic Warbler: Medium-sized, active warbler with stout bill, olive-green back, olive-brown sides, and white throat and belly. Dark eye-lines contrast with pale yellow eyebrows curving upward behind eyes. Wings have faint pale bar on tips of greater coverts. Tail is square. Pale yellow legs, feet.
Western Kingbird
Western Kingbird: Large flycatcher, gray upperparts, darker head, white throat and upper breast, and yellow lower breast and belly. Wings are brown. Tail is black with white edges. Feeds on insects, fruits and berries. Bouyant fluttering flight on shallow wing beats. Hovers over prey and dips down.
Chuck-will's-widow
Chuck-will's-widow: Large nightjar with entire body complexly mottled with brown, gray, and black. Collar is white, throat is brown, and breast patch is dark brown. The tail is white-edged. Legs and feet are brown. Feeds at night, mostly on insects. Bouyant, silent flight with flicking wing beats.
American Golden-Plover
American Golden-Plover: Medium sandpiper with black face, underparts. Back is dark brown with yellow spots; has a white S-shaped mark along head and sides. Markings provide camouflage to blend in with tundra breeding grounds. Bill is black, thin, and short. Swift direct flight on rapid wing beats.
Ross's Goose
Ross's Goose: Small, white goose with black primary feathers and stubby gray-based red-orange bill. Red-orange legs and feet. Eats mostly fresh grasses and grains, often in the company of Snow Geese. Rapid direct flight with strong wing beats. Flies in a V formation. North America's smallest goose.
Snow Goose
Snow Goose: This large goose has two color phases. The White phase is all white with black wing tips. The Blue phase has a white head and neck, blue-gray upperparts, gray-brown breast and sides, white belly, pink bill, legs and feet and black lower mandible. Sexes are identical within each phase. Diet includes pasture grasses and grains. Strong direct flight in bunched flocks or U formations.
Tundra Swan
Tundra Swan: This small swan is completely snowy white. Its head and neck is often stained rust-brown from ferrous minerals in marsh soils. It has a black bill with a yellow spot at the base and black legs and feet. Diet includes aquatic vegetation and grass. Strong direct flight on steady wing beats. Flies in straight line or V formation. Most common swan in North America. Sexes are similar.
Brant
Brant: This small goose has dark brown upperparts and brown-barred, pale gray underparts. The head is black, and the short black neck has a partial white ring. The tail and vent are white. It has a heavy direct flight with strong wing beats. It flies in a straight line formation. It feeds on green plants including eel grass and sea lettuce. The sexes are similar.
Emperor Goose
Emperor Goose: This small goose has slate-gray plumage that is subtly barred in white and black. It has a white head and hindneck, a dark foreneck, a short pink bill, and a white tail with black under tail coverts. The legs are bright yellow-orange. It feeds on plants, crustaceans and mollusks. It has a direct flight with rapid wing beats. The sexes are similar, with the female slightly smaller.
Greater White-fronted Goose
Greater White-fronted Goose: This medium-sized goose has a dark-brown body and the underparts are barred and flecked with black. The belly and under tail coverts are white. The front of the face has a white patch and the bill is usually pink-orange. The legs are orange. It feeds on seeds, grain, grasses and berries. It has a steady direct flight with rapid wing beats. The sexes are similar.
Golden-winged Warbler
Golden-winged Warbler: Small warbler with gray upperparts and white underparts. Face is white with black mask and throat, and head has a yellow crown. Wings are gray with large yellow patches. Its flight is weak and fluttering, alternates rapid wing beats with periods of wings drawn to its sides.
Black Rosy-Finch
Black Rosy-Finch: Medium finch with black-brown breast and back, and gray headband. Belly, rump, and wing patches are pink mixed with brown. Forages on ground and in shrubs, grasses and snowfields. Eats seeds and insects. Swift bounding flight, alternates rapid wing beats with wings pulled to sides.
Gray-crowned Rosy-Finch
Gray-crowned Rosy-Finch: Medium finch with brown body and pink on shoulders, flanks, and belly. Forehead is dark brown. The black bill turns yellow with a dark tip in the winter. Back of head and belly have gray patches. Forages in bushes, trees and on ground for seeds and insects. Bounding flight.
Whooper Swan
Whooper Swan: Large, white swan with black and yellow bill; broad, yellow patch covers at least half of the upper mandible. Black legs and feet. Feeds by dipping head and neck in water. Eats invertebrates and aquatic plants. Strong direct flight with deep and steady wing beats. Flies in V formation.
Greater Roadrunner
Greater Roadrunner: Large, ground-dwelling cuckoo with overall brown, white and buff streaked appearance. Head has a shaggy crest. Face has blue and orange bare patch of skin behind eyes. Tail is long. Eats insects, lizards, snakes, rodents, small birds and fruits and seeds. Can run up to 15 mph.
Yellow-billed Cuckoo
Yellow-billed Cuckoo: Medium cuckoo, gray-brown upperparts and white underparts. Bill is mostly yellow. Wings are gray-brown with rufous primaries. Tail is long and has white-spotted black edges. Gray legs, feet. Feeds primarily on hairy caterpillars, also insects, larvae, small fruits, and berries.
Semipalmated Sandpiper
Semipalmated Sandpiper: This small sandpiper has scaled gray-brown upperparts, white underparts and fine streaks on the breast and sides. It has a short, stout, straight black bill and black legs and feet. It feeds on insects, worms, small mollusks and crustaceans. Swift flight on rapidly beating wings. Sexes are similar.
Rock Sandpiper
Rock Sandpiper: Medium sandpiper, scaled gray-brown and reddish-brown upperparts, dark crown, heavily streaked white underparts with dark breast patch. Dark bill is slightly decurved. Wings have large white stripes visible in flight. Tail has dark central stripe above and is white below. Black legs.
Fulvous Whistling-Duck
Fulvous Whistling-Duck: Large, long-legged, long-necked duck with dark brown back and white V-shaped rump patch. Head and underparts are buff to cinnamon with white throat and vent. The white-edged side and flank feathers form a striking border between sides and back. Tail is black with white undertail coverts.
Upland Sandpiper
Upland Sandpiper: Large bird, dark-spotted, brown upperparts, black rump. White chin, neck, throat. Breast and sides streaked with dark chevrons, white belly. Dark cap, white eye-rings. Bill is thin, olive-brown, decurved at tip. Wedge-shaped tail has dark center and barred edges visible in flight.
Stilt Sandpiper
Stilt Sandpiper: This medium-sized sandpiper has gray-brown upperparts, white rump, heavily barred white underparts, dark cap, white eyebrows and brown ear patches. It has a long, black bill that curves down at the tip and long gray-green legs. It has a powerful, direct flight on long, rapidly beating wings. Sexes are similar.
Sharp-tailed Sandpiper
Sharp-tailed Sandpiper: This medium-sized sandpiper has dark brown upperparts and white underparts with faint olive-brown streaks on breast and sides. It has a rufous crown, white eye ring and dark brown wings. The tail is dark brown and pointed in flight. Feeds primarily on mosquito larvae but also takes mollusks and crustaceans. Swift direct flight with rapid wing beats. Sexes are similar.
Common Black Hawk
Common Black Hawk: Large hawk, nearly all black with white patch just behind bill. Bill, legs and feet are bright orange-yellow. The tail is black with single, thick white band across the middle and a thin, white tip. Alternates deep steady wing beats with short to long glides. Soars on thermals.
Eurasian Hobby
Eurasian Hobby: Small falcon with dark slate-gray upperparts and white underparts with heavy, dark gray streaks. White face has bold black mask and moustache stripe, and thin white eyebrows. Wings are long and pointed. Leggings are orange. Tail is square and finely barred. Graceful powerful flight.
Little Curlew
Little Curlew: Medium curlew, brown-streaked upperparts, white throat, dark-streaked gray breast, and white belly. Head has brown crown. Bill is short and slightly down-curved. Legs and feet are Pale pink to gray. Forages in grassy fields. Bouyant direct flight with steady, rapid wing beats.
Bristle-thighed Curlew
Bristle-thighed Curlew: This large brown-streaked shorebird has a long decurved bill. The eye-line is dark, the eyebrow is white, and the rump is cinnamon-brown. The bristle-like feathers at the base of the legs are subtle. The legs and feet are blue-gray. It has a strong, swift direct flight. It feeds on crustaceans and small fish. Sexes are similar, though females are larger and longer billed.
Baird's Sandpiper
Baird's Sandpiper: This medium-sized bird has scaled gray-brown upperparts, white underparts and a dark-spotted gray-brown breast. The crown, face and neck are buff with fine brown streaks. It has a white rump with a dark central stripe and black legs and feet. Feeds on insects and spiders. Swift direct flight with rapid wing beats; long wings allow them to make long flights. Sexes are similar.
Gadwall
Gadwall: This large dabbling duck has a finely barred gray body, black rump and under tail coverts, a white belly, and rust-brown shoulders. It has a gray-brown head and neck and gray bill. The wings have a black-bordered white speculum visible in flight. The legs and feet are yellow. It mostly feeds on submerged aquatic vegetation. It has a fast direct flight.
Lesser Sand-Plover
Lesser Sand-Plover: Medium-sized, chunky plover with gray upperparts, white underparts, and bright rust-brown breast band and nape. The head has gray-brown cap and thick black eyestripe broken by a white forehead. Throat is white with a black border. Bill is black and legs and feet are black.
Mountain Plover
Mountain Plover: Medium-sized plover with pale brown upperparts, white underparts, and brown sides. Head has brown cap, white face, and dark eyestripe. The upperwings are brown with black edges and white bars; underwings are white. Tail is brown-black with white edges. Legs and feet are pale gray.
Baikal Teal
Baikal Teal: Small dabbling duck, head pattern of pale brown, green, white, and black. Pink breast has dark spots, flanks are gray bordered with vertical white stripes, scapulars are brown, black, and white. Wing speculum is green with buff upper and white lower border. Black undertail coverts.
Red-throated Pipit
Red-throated Pipit: Medium pipit, brown streaked upperparts, heavily streaked white underparts. Face, chin, throat, upper breast are orange-brown. Crown is pale brown. Brown wings have two white bars. Tail is white-edged. Bill is black. Legs and feet are pink. Eats mostly insects, also eat seeds.
Steller's Eider
Steller's Eider: Small eider with black back and collar, white sides, buff-brown underparts with small but distinct black spot on side. White head has a dark tuft, black eye patch and chin. Wings are white with black primaries and a white-bordered blue speculum. Blue-gray bill, legs and feet.
Common Nighthawk
Common Nighthawk: Medium nightjar with white-speckled, dark upperparts, black-and-white barred underparts, mottled breast, white throat. Wings are long, dark gray with white bars, nearly covering tail when folded. Gray-brown legs and feet. Darting erratic flight with frequent changes of direction.
Buff-breasted Sandpiper
Buff-breasted Sandpiper: This medium-sized sandpiper has a buff wash over the entire body except for the white vent. It has black-spotted and streaked upperparts, slightly scaled underparts, a white eye ring, black bill and yellow legs. It feeds mostly on insects. It has a swift direct flight with rapid wing beats. It shows white wing linings in flight. The sexes are similar.
Pacific Golden-Plover
Pacific Golden-Plover: This medium-sized plover is yellow-spotted. It has a dark brown back, black face and black underparts with white-mottled flanks; a white S-shaped mark extends from above the eye to along sides. It has a thin, short black bill and black legs and feet. Females are duller in color. Diet includes insects, worms and spiders. Swift direct flight with rapid, steady wing beats.
White-rumped Sandpiper
White-rumped Sandpiper: Small sandpiper, brown and black scaled upperparts, distinct white rump. Neck and upper breast are white with brown streaks. Streaked head has white eyebrows. Thin white stripes on dark wings visible in flight. Tail is rounded and black. Dark legs and feet.
Say's Phoebe
Say's Phoebe: Medium-sized, active flycatcher with gray-brown upperparts and head, paler gray throat and upper breast, and pale rufous belly and undertail coverts. The wings and tail are dark gray. Feeds primarily on insects. Weak fluttering flight with shallow wing beats. Hawks from perch, hovers.
Blue-winged Teal
Blue-winged Teal: This small dabbling duck has a purple-gray head and a distinct white crescent on the face. The upperparts are scaled buff and dark brown; underparts are pale brown with many dark spots. The wings have a green speculum and a pale blue shoulder patch visible in flight. Flight is fast and direct with steady wing beats. It mainly feeds on plants. The sexes look similar.
Yellow-billed Loon
Yellow-billed Loon: Large loon, white-spotted black upperparts, white underparts, gray sides with fine white spots. Head is glossy green-black; neck has black-and-white rings. Yellow bill. Dives for small fish, crustaceans. Direct flight on deep wing beats. Solitary, or in pairs and family groups.