Tips for using Browse:

Browsing is a valuable way to learn about birds, however it is a brute force approach and not designed for identification. A more sophisticated approach to finding a bird with specific field marks is to use the Step by Step Search. You can also try the Wizard to find a bird, which uses a question and answer approach, but again it does not give you the flexibility of the Step by Step Search.

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White-rumped Sandpiper
White-rumped Sandpiper: Small sandpiper, brown and black scaled upperparts, distinct white rump. Neck and upper breast are white with brown streaks. Streaked head has white eyebrows. Thin white stripes on dark wings visible in flight. Tail is rounded and black. Dark legs and feet.
Upland Sandpiper
Upland Sandpiper: Large bird, dark-spotted, brown upperparts, black rump. White chin, neck, throat. Breast and sides streaked with dark chevrons, white belly. Dark cap, white eye-rings. Bill is thin, olive-brown, decurved at tip. Wedge-shaped tail has dark center and barred edges visible in flight.
Buff-breasted Sandpiper
Buff-breasted Sandpiper: This medium-sized sandpiper has a buff wash over the entire body except for the white vent. It has black-spotted and streaked upperparts, slightly scaled underparts, a white eye ring, black bill and yellow legs. It feeds mostly on insects. It has a swift direct flight with rapid wing beats. It shows white wing linings in flight. The sexes are similar.
Common Merganser
Common Merganser: Large, sleek diving duck with black upperparts and white underparts. Head and upper neck are green-black with head crest usually not visible. Long, thin bill is bright red. Wings are black with extensive white patches. Feeds on fish, mollusks, crustaceans, insects and plants.
Semipalmated Sandpiper
Semipalmated Sandpiper: This small sandpiper has scaled gray-brown upperparts, white underparts and fine streaks on the breast and sides. It has a short, stout, straight black bill and black legs and feet. It feeds on insects, worms, small mollusks and crustaceans. Swift flight on rapidly beating wings. Sexes are similar.
Least Sandpiper
Least Sandpiper: This small sandpiper has brown-scaled upperparts and a rust-brown crown. The breast and throat are dark-spotted; belly, under tail are white. The wings have thin white stripes visible in flight. The black line on the rump extends onto the tail. The legs and feet are yellow-green. It feeds mostly on insects. It has a swift direct flight with rapid wing beats. Sexes are similar.
Stilt Sandpiper
Stilt Sandpiper: This medium-sized sandpiper has gray-brown upperparts, white rump, heavily barred white underparts, dark cap, white eyebrows and brown ear patches. It has a long, black bill that curves down at the tip and long gray-green legs. It has a powerful, direct flight on long, rapidly beating wings. Sexes are similar.
Solitary Sandpiper
Solitary Sandpiper: This medium-sized sandpiper has pale-spotted, dark brown back and rump, white underparts with streaks on neck and sides, dark head and a bold white eyering. It has a black tail with conspicuous black-and-white barred edges; olive-green bill, legs and feet. Feeds on insects and insect larvae, spiders, worms and tadpoles. Direct flight is light and buoyant. Sexes are similar.
Semipalmated Plover
Semipalmated Plover: This small plover has gray-brown upperparts, white underparts, a black face, collar and forehead and a faint stripe sometimes seen over the eye. It has a black-tipped orange bill, orange legs and feet and a brown tail with white edges. Wings have white stripes visible in flight. Feeds on insects, larvae and other invertebrates. Strong direct flight. Sexes are similar.
Hooded Merganser
Hooded Merganser: This small merganser has black upperparts, white underparts with two black bars on side of breast, and red-brown flanks. The crest shows a large white patch when raised; white stripe extends backwards from eye when lowered. Feeds on fish and aquatic insects. Dark wings have white shoulder patch visible in flight. Rapid direct flight with fast wing beats. Sexes are similar.
American Black Duck
American Black Duck: Stocky, medium-sized dabbling duck with dark brown body, paler face and foreneck, and purple speculum bordered with black. Head is finely streaked; dark eyestripe is distinct. White underwings contrast with dark brown body in flight. Legs, feet are orange. Swift direct flight.
Wood Duck
Wood Duck: Small tree duck with brown back, white throat, purple-brown breast with white flecks grading to white belly; buff-yellow flanks. Crested head is green and purple with white stripes; white throat has two bars, one extends as a partial collar, the other extends behind and below eyes.
Common Nighthawk
Common Nighthawk: Medium nightjar with white-speckled, dark upperparts, black-and-white barred underparts, mottled breast, white throat. Wings are long, dark gray with white bars, nearly covering tail when folded. Gray-brown legs and feet. Darting erratic flight with frequent changes of direction.
Red-throated Loon
Red-throated Loon: Small loon with scaled gray back and white underparts. Head and sides of neck are gray, throat is dark red, nape is black-and-white striped. Eyes are red. Feeds on fish, dives to 90 feet for them. Direct flight, rapid wing beats. Only loon to leap into flight from water or land.
Pacific Loon
Pacific Loon: This medium-sized loon has a black-and-white checkered back and white underparts. It has a gray crown and nape, red eyes and a slender black bill. Iridescent throat patch can appear purple, green or black. Feeds mostly on fish, some crustaceans and insects. Flight is direct with rapid wing beats. Sexes are similar.
Say's Phoebe
Say's Phoebe: Medium-sized, active flycatcher with gray-brown upperparts and head, paler gray throat and upper breast, and pale rufous belly and undertail coverts. The wings and tail are dark gray. Feeds primarily on insects. Weak fluttering flight with shallow wing beats. Hawks from perch, hovers.
Blue-winged Teal
Blue-winged Teal: This small dabbling duck has a purple-gray head and a distinct white crescent on the face. The upperparts are scaled buff and dark brown; underparts are pale brown with many dark spots. The wings have a green speculum and a pale blue shoulder patch visible in flight. Flight is fast and direct with steady wing beats. It mainly feeds on plants. The sexes look similar.
Baird's Sandpiper
Baird's Sandpiper: This medium-sized bird has scaled gray-brown upperparts, white underparts and a dark-spotted gray-brown breast. The crown, face and neck are buff with fine brown streaks. It has a white rump with a dark central stripe and black legs and feet. Feeds on insects and spiders. Swift direct flight with rapid wing beats; long wings allow them to make long flights. Sexes are similar.
Herring Gull
Herring Gull: This large gull has a pale gray back, black-tipped wings, a white head, neck, breast, tail and underparts. The bill is yellow with a red spot near the tip; legs are pink. Diet includes marine invertebrates, fish and insects. It has a strong steady flight with deep wing beats and soars on thermals and updrafts. The males are larger than females; the sexes have similar plumage.
Hudsonian Godwit
Hudsonian Godwit: Large sandpiper with white-scaled, brown-black upperparts, black-barred chestnut-brown underparts. Long bill, slightly upcurved and pink with black tip. White rump, white wing-bar, black underwings visible in flight. Legs and feet are blue-gray. Swift, powerful undulating flight.
Franklin's Gull
Franklin's Gull: This medium-sized gull has a gray back and white underparts. It has a black head, white eye ring, orange bill with a black spot near the tip, and red-orange legs. The wings are short with white spotted black tips. It has a strong direct flight with deep wing beats. It feeds mostly on terrestrial and aquatic insects. The sexes are similar; males are slightly larger.
Grasshopper Sparrow
Grasshopper Sparrow: Medium sparrow with brown-streaked upperparts and white underparts. Face, flanks, and breast are plain buff-brown. Head is flat with central white stripe though dark crown. Upper mandible is gray, while lower mandible is yellow. Pink legs and feet. Named for its insectlike song.
Parasitic Jaeger
Parasitic Jaeger: The dark morph of this medium-sized jaeger has a brown body, darker cap and pale underwing patches near tips. Pale form has white underparts with brown breast band; intermediates between dark and light morphs occur. Diamond-shaped tail has elongated, pointed central feathers. Black bill, legs and feet. Alternates several deep flaps with glides and fast wing beats. Sexes are similar.
Pectoral Sandpiper
Pectoral Sandpiper: This medium-sized sandpiper has scaled, dark brown upperparts, heavily streaked brown breast, plain white belly and eye ring, dark brown crown, faint wing-bar and black rump with white edges that are visible in flight. Primarily feeds on arthropods and other invertebrates. Swift direct flight with rapid wing beats. Zigzag pattern when flushed. Sexes are similar.
Lesser Yellowlegs
Lesser Yellowlegs: This large sandpiper has gray and black mottled upperparts, white underparts, and streaked upper breast and sides. The bill is straight and uniformly dark gray. The white lower rump and dark-barred tail are visible in flight. The legs are long and yellow. It feeds on aquatic and terrestrial invertebrates. It has a swift direct flight with rapid wing beats. Sexes are similar.
Long-billed Dowitcher
Long-billed Dowitcher: This large, stocky sandpiper has dark, mottled upperparts, dark cap and eye stripe, short white eyebrow, and red-brown underparts with lightly barred flanks. The bill is long, dark and dagger-like, and the legs and feet are yellow-green. It feeds on insects and insect larvae, mollusks, crustaceans and marine worms. Swift direct flight, rapid wing beats. Sexes are similar.
Forster's Tern
Forster's Tern: Medium tern, pale gray upperparts, black cap, white underparts. Bill is orange, black tip. Wings are pale gray with paler primaries. Tail is pale gray, deeply forked with dark inner edge, white outer edge. Orange legs, feet. Hovers above water before diving for prey.
Arctic Tern
Arctic Tern: This is a medium-sized, slim tern with gray upperparts, black cap, a white rump and throat, and pale gray underparts. The tail is deeply forked and white with dark edged outer feathers. The bill is dark red. The legs and feet are red. It has a buoyant, graceful flight with steady wing beats. It feeds on small fish, crustaceans and insects. Both sexes are similar in appearance.
Black Tern
Black Tern: This small tern has a black head, bill and underparts. The back, wings and tail are silver-gray, and the vent is white. The legs and feet are dark red but may appear black. It has a buoyant, direct flight with deep rapid wing beats. It hovers for insects in an uneven foraging flight. It plunge dives on occasion. The sexes appear similar.
Gadwall
Gadwall: This large dabbling duck has a finely barred gray body, black rump and under tail coverts, a white belly, and rust-brown shoulders. It has a gray-brown head and neck and gray bill. The wings have a black-bordered white speculum visible in flight. The legs and feet are yellow. It mostly feeds on submerged aquatic vegetation. It has a fast direct flight.
Northern Shrike
Northern Shrike: Medium shrike with gray upperparts,pale gray underparts. Mask is black with white border, bill is heavy and slightly hooked. Wings are black with white patches. Tail is long, black, and white-edged. Legs and feet are black. Flight is swift and undulating on shallow rapid wing beats.
Common Tern
Common Tern: This medium-sized tern has medium gray upperparts, pale gray underparts and a glossy black cap and nape. The wings are dark-tipped with a dark leading edge on the forewing. The red bill is black-tipped, legs are red, and the tail is deeply forked and elongated. It has a direct flight, hovering above water before diving for prey. Feeds mainly on small marine fish. Sexes are similar.
Curlew Sandpiper
Curlew Sandpiper: This is a medium-sized sandpiper with mottled rufous, white and black upperparts. The head, neck and breast are a rich rufous, while vent, under tail coverts and underwings are white. It has a long black bill that is slightly decurved, and black legs and feet. It mainly feeds on insects and other small invertebrates. Swift direct flight with rapid wing beats. Sexes are similar.
Bonaparte's Gull
Bonaparte's Gull: This is a medium-sized gull with a black head and bill, gray back and wings and white underparts and tail. White outer primaries with black trailing edges are visible in flight. The legs are red-orange. It catches fish by wading and diving. It has a light and direct flight with rapid wing beats. It feeds mainly on insects, which it catches in mid-flight. The sexes are similar.
Caspian Tern
Caspian Tern: This large stocky tern has pale gray upperparts and white underparts. The cap is black and may appear weakly crested. The large bill is coral-red, the undersides of the primaries are gray, a short white tail is slightly forked, and the legs are black. The flight is strong, swift and graceful. It hovers above water before diving and mainly feeds on fish. The sexes are similar.
Evening Grosbeak
Evening Grosbeak: Large, stocky finch. The male has a bright yellow back, rump, and underparts. Head is dark brown with heavy, pale bill; bright yellow eyebrows extend onto forehead. Wings are dark with bold white secondary patches; tail is dark. The female and juvenile females are similar, but grayer and with white-tipped tails; secondary wing patch is gray and base of inner primaries are white. Juvenile male resembles female, but have white secondaries. Feeds on insects, buds, sap, seeds, fruits and berries. Swift bounding flight.
Pine Grosbeak
Pine Grosbeak: Large, robust finch with red-washed black back, gray sides and undertail coverts, and pink-red rump and underparts. Head and face are pink-red; bill is heavy and black. Wings are black with two pale bars. Tail is black and slightly notched. Feeds on seeds, buds, fruits and insects.
Chestnut-sided Warbler
Chestnut-sided Warbler: Medium warbler with black-streaked upperparts, white underparts, and chestnut-brown flanks. The cap is bright yellow and moustache stripe is black. Often cocks its tail high above its back as it feeds. The only North American warbler with pure white underparts in all seasons.
Golden-winged Warbler
Golden-winged Warbler: Small warbler with gray upperparts and white underparts. Face is white with black mask and throat, and head has a yellow crown. Wings are gray with large yellow patches. Its flight is weak and fluttering, alternates rapid wing beats with periods of wings drawn to its sides.
Canada Warbler
Canada Warbler: Small warbler with slate-gray upperparts, bright yellow underparts, black-streaked necklace, and white vent. The eye-ring is yellow to white. Bill is gray. Pink legs and feet. Skulks in low, dense undergrowth beneath mixed hardwoods. Direct flight with quick, fluttering wing beats.
Blackpoll Warbler
Blackpoll Warbler: Medium-sized warbler with black-streaked, gray upperparts, white underparts, and black-streaked white sides. Head has black cap and prominent white cheek patch. Bill is black. Wings are dark with two white bars. Pink legs and feet. Swift, direct flight with rapidly beating wings.
Pine Warbler
Pine Warbler: Medium warbler with plain olive-gray upperparts, yellow throat and breast, blurry-streaked sides, and white belly and undertail coverts. Wings are gray with two white bars. It is the only warbler that eats large quantities of seeds, usually pine. One of the earliest breeding warblers.
Ovenbird
Ovenbird: Medium, ground walking warbler, olive-brown upperparts, heavily spotted white underparts. Head has dull orange central crown stripe edged in black, and a white eye-ring. Wings, tail are olive-green. Name is from its covered nest, the dome and side entrance make it resemble a dutch oven.
Black-billed Cuckoo
Black-billed Cuckoo: Medium cuckoo with brown upperparts, white underparts. Eye-ring is red and decurved bill is black. Tail is long with faint white, dark-eyed spots underneath. Feeds primarily on caterpillars, also eats insects, small fish, mollusks and fruits. Makes low flights of short duration.
Trumpeter Swan
Trumpeter Swan: Largest swan in the world, completely white but with head and neck often stained rust-brown from contact with ferrous minerals in wetland soils. Bill, legs, and feet are black. Feeds on aquatic plants. Strong direct flight on steady wing beats. Flies in straight line or V formation.
Tundra Swan
Tundra Swan: This small swan is completely snowy white. Its head and neck is often stained rust-brown from ferrous minerals in marsh soils. It has a black bill with a yellow spot at the base and black legs and feet. Diet includes aquatic vegetation and grass. Strong direct flight on steady wing beats. Flies in straight line or V formation. Most common swan in North America. Sexes are similar.
Ross's Goose
Ross's Goose: Small, white goose with black primary feathers and stubby gray-based red-orange bill. Red-orange legs and feet. Eats mostly fresh grasses and grains, often in the company of Snow Geese. Rapid direct flight with strong wing beats. Flies in a V formation. North America's smallest goose.
Snow Goose
Snow Goose: This large goose has two color phases. The White phase is all white with black wing tips. The Blue phase has a white head and neck, blue-gray upperparts, gray-brown breast and sides, white belly, pink bill, legs and feet and black lower mandible. Sexes are identical within each phase. Diet includes pasture grasses and grains. Strong direct flight in bunched flocks or U formations.
Connecticut Warbler
Connecticut Warbler: Large ground-walking warbler, olive-gray upperparts, dull yellow underparts. Head has a slate-gray hood and bold white eye-ring. It was named for the state where it was first discovered, where it is an uncommon migrant. Sometimes called Swamp Warbler.
Black-throated Green Warbler
Black-throated Green Warbler: Medium-sized warbler with olive-green upperparts, black-streaked flanks, and white underparts. Face is yellow with black eyestripe and bill. Crown is olive green. Throat and upper breast are black. Wings are dark with two white bars. Tail is dark. Black legs and feet.
Black Scoter
Black Scoter: Medium diving duck, entirely black except for yellow knob at base of black bill. Legs and feet are black. The male is the only all black duck in North America. Dives for food, primarily eats mollusks. Strong direct flight with rapid wing beats. Flies in straight line and V formation.
White-winged Scoter
White-winged Scoter: Medium sea duck, mostly black except for white eye patches, large white wing patches. Bill is orange with large black basal knob. Red-orange legs, feet. Dives to 40 feet, feeds primarily on shellfish. Direct flight with steady wing beats. Flies in straight line or V formation.
Magnolia Warbler
Magnolia Warbler: Medium-sized warbler with dark back, yellow rump, and black-streaked yellow underparts. The head has a blue-gray crown, yellow throat. Wings are dark with two white bars. Tail is dark with white patches and undertail coverts. Bill, legs and feet are black.
Red Crossbill
Red Crossbill: Medium finch with red-orange body, brighter red rump, and dark brown wings. Bill is dark and crossed at tip. The tail is notched. Legs and feet are gray-black. Eats seeds, insects and caterpillars. Swift bounding flight, alternates rapid wing beats with wings pulled briefly to sides.
White-breasted Nuthatch
White-breasted Nuthatch: Large nuthatch, blue-gray upperparts, black crown and nape, and white face, underparts. Tail is dark with white corners. Legs and feet are black. Female is similar but with blue-gray crown and nape. Eats spiders,insects, nuts and seeds. Weak fluttering flight, alternates rapid wing beats with periods of wings drawn to sides.
Bay-breasted Warbler
Bay-breasted Warbler: Medium-sized warbler with dark-streaked gray upperparts and buff underparts with chestnut-brown patches on the chin, throat, breast and flanks. The head has a dark brown crown and black mask. Wings are black with two white bars. It is one of the largest warblers.
Red-breasted Nuthatch
Red-breasted Nuthatch: Medium nuthatch with blue-gray upperparts and pale rust-brown underparts. Head has a black cap, white eyebrow, black eyestripe; throat is white. Bill is slightly upturned. Legs and feet are black. Weak fluttering flight, alternates rapid wing beats with wings drawn to sides.
Long-tailed Duck
Long-tailed Duck: This small duck has black upperparts, head, neck, breast and wings; brown mottled black back, white flanks, belly, under tail coverts. Long black tail with long slender feathers, pale gray mask and black bill with dark pink saddle. Feeds on aquatic insects. Female is duller, lacks long tail, and has gray bill. Swift direct flight often with erratic side-to-side turns of body.
Sprague's Pipit
Sprague's Pipit: Medium pipit with streaked, brown upperparts, buff breast with dark streaks, and white throat and belly. Tail is brown with white edges. Thin, pale bill. Legs are yellow to pale brown. Its plumage blends well among prairie grasses, making it difficult to spot.
American Golden-Plover
American Golden-Plover: Medium sandpiper with black face, underparts. Back is dark brown with yellow spots; has a white S-shaped mark along head and sides. Markings provide camouflage to blend in with tundra breeding grounds. Bill is black, thin, and short. Swift direct flight on rapid wing beats.
Redhead
Redhead: This medium-sized diving duck has a gray back and sides, black upper back, breast, rump and tail, and white belly. The head and neck are rufous-brown, and the blue-gray bill is black-tipped; eyes are yellow. Females are duller and browner, with a light area around the base of the bill. Feeds mostly on aquatic vegetation. Rapid direct flight with strong wing beats, flies in V formation.
Green-winged Teal
Green-winged Teal: This small dabbling duck has pale, gray-barred sides and a buff breast with a white bar down the side. The head is chestnut-brown with a green ear patch, the bill is dark gray, and the legs and feet are olive-gray. The speculum is flashy green bordered with brown above and white below. Diet includes seeds, insects and grasses. Flight is often low and erratic.
Mourning Warbler
Mourning Warbler: Medium-sized warbler with an olive-green back, wings, tail, and gray hood. The underparts are yellow and the upper breast is black. It's named for the way its dark breast and hood resemble a person in mourning. It is one of the latest spring migrants of all North American warblers.
Nashville Warbler
Nashville Warbler: Small warbler, olive-green upperparts, yellow underparts, white lower belly. Small chestnut-brown cap, barely noticeable. Gray hood extends to back, eye-ring is white. Two breeding populations, a mid to northeastern one that doesn't wag its tail, and a Pacific Coast one that does.
Palm Warbler
Palm Warbler: Medium warbler with olive-brown upperparts and yellow underparts streaked with brown. Cap is chestnut-brown. Western form is grayer overall and has white belly. It pumps its tail up and down more than any other warbler. Despite its name, it lives further north than most other warblers.
Tennessee Warbler
Tennessee Warbler: Small warbler with olive-green upperparts, white underparts, and olive-gray washed sides. Darker head has white eyebrows and dark eyestripes. Wings are plain gray. Tail is short. It spends the summers in Canada and is only found in Tennessee during migration. Eats mostly insects.
Willow Flycatcher
Willow Flycatcher: Small flycatcher, brown-olive upperparts, white throat contrasting with paler breast, white to pale yellow belly and faint white eye ring. Dark wings with two white bars. Feeds on insects, spiders, berries. Weak fluttering flight with shallow rapid wing beats.
Western Kingbird
Western Kingbird: Large flycatcher, gray upperparts, darker head, white throat and upper breast, and yellow lower breast and belly. Wings are brown. Tail is black with white edges. Feeds on insects, fruits and berries. Bouyant fluttering flight on shallow wing beats. Hovers over prey and dips down.
Yellow-breasted Chat
Yellow-breasted Chat: The largest North American warbler. Has olive-green to olive-gray upperparts, brilliant yellow throat, breast. Belly and undertail are white. Eyes have white spectacles and dark eye patches. Bill is heavy and dark. Wings and tail are olive-green. Bill, legs, and feet are black.
Yellow Warbler
Yellow Warbler: Small warbler with olive-yellow upperparts and bright yellow underparts with rust-brown streaks on breast, sides. Wings are dark. Tail is dark with yellow-tinged edges. Female lacks streaks on breast. The Golden group has an olive-brown crown and is found in the Florida Keys and West Indies. The Mangrove group has a rufous hood and is found in Central America and northern South America. Has a wider range than any other North American warbler. Eats insects, larvae, and some fruit.
Red-headed Woodpecker
Red-headed Woodpecker: Medium-sized woodpecker with black upperparts and tail, and white underparts and rump. The head, throat, and upper breast are dark red. Wings are black with large white patches. Bill, legs and feet are black. This is the only woodpecker in the east with a completely red head.
Brown Thrasher
Brown Thrasher: Medium thrasher, rufous upperparts, black-streaked, pale brown underparts. Eyes are yellow. Brown-black bill curves down, lower mandible has pale base. Wings have two white and black bars. Tail is long and red-brown. Legs and feet are brown. Fast flight on shallow, rapid wing beats.
Eastern Towhee
Eastern Towhee: Large sparrow with black upperparts, hood and upper breast, rufous flanks, and white underparts. Wings are black with white markings, and tail is long and black with white corners. Short, bounding flight, alternates several rapid wing beats with wings pulled to sides.
American Tree Sparrow
American Tree Sparrow: Medium, gray-brown sparrow, black and rufous-brown streaks on back, wings. Crown, eyestripes, flanks are rufous-brown, contrasting with gray face. Pale gray breast with dark central spot, rufous-brown sides. Upper mandible is dark gray, lower mandible is yellow.
Eastern Phoebe
Eastern Phoebe: Small flycatcher with dark gray-brown upperparts and slightly darker wings and tail. Underparts are pale with hint of olive-brown or yellow on sides and breast. Bill, legs, and feet are black. Feeds on insects, small fish, berries and fruit. Weak fluttering bouyant flight.
Veery
Veery: Medium-sized thrush with rust-brown upperparts, indistinct pale gray eye-ring, white underparts, and faint rust-brown spots on the breast. Dark race has gray-brown upperparts and breast spots. The male sings a lovely, ethereal downward-slurring song at sunset. Shy and retiring.
Black-capped Chickadee
Black-capped Chickadee: Medium-sized, stocky chickadee with pale gray upperparts and breast and pale olive-brown underparts. The black cap and bib and white cheeks are conspicuous. Black bill is short and thin. Wings are dark with broad white edges on feathers. State bird of Maine and Massachusetts.
Least Flycatcher
Least Flycatcher: Small flycatcher with olive-gray upperparts, gray breast, and pale yellow belly. Eye-ring is white. The bill has pale lower mandible with dark tip. Legs and feet are black. Feeds on insects, spiders, berries and seeds. Weak fluttering direct flight with shallow wing beats.
Alder Flycatcher
Alder Flycatcher: Small flycatcher with olive-brown upperparts, white underparts, and indistinct white eye-ring. Wings are olive-brown with two white or pale bars. Bill is short with orange lower mandible. Black legs and feet. Weak fluttering direct flight with shallow, rapid wing beats.
Savannah Sparrow
Savannah Sparrow: Small sparrow, dark-streaked, gray-brown upperparts, white underparts, heavy streaks on breast and sides. Head has a brown crown with pale central stripe and pale yellow or white eyebrows. Brown wings have two pale bars. Tail is short and notched. Pink legs and feet.
Swamp Sparrow
Swamp Sparrow: Small sparrow with dark-streaked brown upperparts, gray upper breast, and pale gray, faintly streaked underparts. Head has rust-brown cap with paler median stripe and gray face. The wings are rust-brown with black-and-white streaks. Eats seeds, insects. Pink legs, feet.
Lapland Longspur
Lapland Longspur: Medium sparrow-like bird, brown-streaked black back. Underparts are white, streaked black on sides, flanks. Crown, face, and throat are black; nape is red-brown. Broad white stripe from eye to sides of breast. Bill is yellow with dark tip. Tail is long, white edges.
Lark Sparrow
Lark Sparrow: Medium sparrow with streaked, gray-brown upperparts and buff underparts with black breast spot. Head has black, white, and chestnut-brown stripes. Tail is long and black with white edges. Short, fluttering flight, alternates rapid wing beats with wings pulled to sides.
Sharp-tailed Grouse
Sharp-tailed Grouse: Medium grouse with lightly barred brown upperparts and white underparts dotted with chevrons. Head has short crest, yellow-orange eye comb, and pink or violet neck patch exposed when displaying. Tail is pointed and white-edged. Often seen on prairies in the summer.
Vesper Sparrow
Vesper Sparrow: Medium sparrow, black-streaked gray-brown upperparts, white underparts, and streaked breast and sides. White face has brown cheek patch and white eye-ring. Wings are gray-brown with two pale bars and rufous shoulder patches. Tail is notched and dark with white edges.
Smith's Longspur
Smith's Longspur: Medium sparrow, yellow-brown streaked upperparts, black head with white eyebrow and ear patch, and yellow-brown nape, throat, and underparts. Wings have large white bars. Tail is black with white edges. Yellow-brown legs and feet. Feeds on seeds, spiders, and insects.
White-throated Sparrow
White-throated Sparrow: Medium-sized sparrow with rust-brown striped upperparts, conspicuous white throat, and plain gray underparts. Head has black-and-white striped crown and yellow spots between eyes and bill. Short flights, alternates rapid wing beats with wings pulled to sides.
Wilson's Snipe
Wilson's Snipe: This medium-sized sandpiper has brown and black mottled upperparts, buff striped back, white underparts, dark bars on sides and flanks, heavily streaked head, neck and breast, and yellow-green legs and feet. Feeds on insects and earthworms. Zigzag flight on takeoff, followed by direct flight with rapid wing beats. Sexes are similar.
Eastern Screech-Owl
Eastern Screech-Owl Gray Morph: Small with gray-mottled upperparts, rows of white spots at shoulders, heavily streaked and barred underparts. Facial disk is lightly mottled with prominent dark rim. Small ear tufts. Yellow eyes, bill is yellow or olive-green. Short, rounded wings and tail are barred.
Lark Bunting
Lark Bunting: Large sparrow, nearly black with large white wing patches, short, white-edged tail, and heavy, blue-gray bill. Forages in groung, low vegetation. Strong flight, alternates shallow wing beats with brief periods of wings pulled to sides. It is the state bird of Colorado.
Townsend's Solitaire
Townsend's Solitaire: Small thrush, gray overall and slightly darker above. Eye-ring is thin and white. The wings have pale rust-brown patches and black flight feathers. Outer tail feathers are white. Perches upright and remains still for long periods of time and is easily overlooked.
Golden-crowned Kinglet
Golden-crowned Kinglet: Very small, warbler-like bird, olive-green to gray upperparts and pale breast. Head has bright orange crown patch bordered with yellow and black, white eyebrows and black bill. Tail is short and wings have two bars. Female similar but lacks orange in the yellow crown. Weak fluttering flight on shallow wing beats.
Gray Partridge
Gray Partridge: Gray-brown ground bird with rufous face and throat. Body complexly barred and streaked with red and white. Dark red belly patch. Legs and feet are yellow-orange. Prefers to walk rather than fly. Introduced to North America as a game bird in the early 1900s. AKA Hungarian Partridge.
Yellow-rumped (Myrtle) Warbler
Yellow-rumped (Myrtle) Warbler: Medium warbler, dark-streaked, blue-gray upperparts, yellow rump. White throat and belly, breast white and black streaked, yellow patches on the sides. Head gray with yellow crown, white crescent under eyes, white supercilium, black lores and cheeks. Dark wings with two white bars. Tail is dark with white corners.
American Woodcock
American Woodcock: Medium, stocky sandpiper with buff-brown underparts and dark-streaked gray-brown upperparts. Head shows black bars rather than the stripes of most other sandpipers. Eyes are black and very large; bill is dull yellow with a black tip and is long and stout. Pale gray legs and feet.
Piping Plover
Piping Plover: Small, pale sand-colored plover, showy black bands on head, neck. White upertail with white-edged black tip. Short bill has bright orange base and black tip. Legs are bright orange. Eats fly larvae, beetles, crustaceans and marine worms. Feeds higher on the beach than other plovers.
Bohemian Waxwing
Bohemian Waxwing: Large waxwing with gray upperparts, pink-gray crest, black mask and chin, and gray underparts. The wings are black with a sharp yellow or white line and red spots on secondaries (visible when folded). Tail is dark and yellow-tipped with cinnamon-brown undertail coverts.
Horned Lark
Horned Lark: Medium-sized lark with pale or dark brown upperparts and white underparts. Face and throat are pale yellow to white and mask, cap, and ear tufts are black. Tail is dark with white edges. Forages on ground, usually in open fields. Eats seeds, grains, insects and small mollusks.
Philadelphia Vireo
Philadelphia Vireo: Medium vireo with olive-green upperparts and yellow-washed to yellow underparts. The head has a gray cap, dark eyes, and white-bordered black eye-line. Wings are olive-green with very faint wing-bars. Undertail coverts yellow. First discovered near Philadelphia in 1842.
Yellow-bellied Flycatcher
Yellow-bellied Flycatcher: Small flycatcher with olive-green upperparts, yellow underparts, and olive-green wash on breast. Spectacles are pale yellow. The wings are dark with two white bars. Feeds on a variety of insects and spiders. Weak fluttering flight with shallow rapid wing beats.
Great Crested Flycatcher
Great Crested Flycatcher: Large, crested flycatcher with olive-green upperparts. Head, throat, and upper breast are gray, belly is yellow, and undertail coverts are lemon-yellow. Bill is heavy and black. Wings are dark with rufous patches. Tail is rufous. Swift bouyant direct flight.
Hoary Redpoll
Hoary Redpoll: Small finch (exilipes), buff-gray, brown-streaked upperparts and brown-streaked white underparts washed pink. Head has red cap, black chin patch. Black wings with two white bars. Rump is pale gray or white with few or no streaks. Black tail is notched. Black legs and feet.
White-winged Crossbill
White-winged Crossbill: Medium crossbill, bright pink overall except for black wings with two bold white wing-bars. Belly has dull white center; white undertail coverts. Black tail, deeply notched. Swift bounding flight, alternates rapid wing beats with wings pulled to sides.
Sedge Wren
Sedge Wren: Small wren with white-streaked, brown upperparts and pale buff underparts. Eyebrows are pale brown. Tail is short and barred. Bill is short and the legs and feet are pink. One of the most nomadic territorial birds. In any area it may be abundant one year, absent the next.
Common Redpoll
Common Redpoll: Small finch, brown-streaked gray upperparts, bright rose-pink breast, boldly streaked flanks and undertail coverts. Red cap and black chin. Bill is olive-brown with fine black tip. Wings are dark with two narrow white bars; tail is black and notched. Black legs, feet.
Le Conte's Sparrow
Le Conte's Sparrow: Small sparrow, brown-streaked back, brown-streaked gray nape, pale gray underparts with streaks on sides, pale yellow breast. Head is flat with brown stripes. Face is pale yellow-orange with gray cheeks. Legs, feet are pink-brown.
Lincoln's Sparrow
Lincoln's Sparrow: Medium sparrow, dark-streaked pale brown upperparts, white underparts with dark streaks. Head has brown crown with gray central stripe, and nape, pale eye-ring, and brown streak extending behind eye. Upper mandible is dark, lower mandible is pale orange-brown.
Common Grackle
Common Grackle: Medium-sized blackbird with metallic purple sheen on back, head, neck, and breast. Eyes are bright yellow. Central feathers of long, rounded tail are often lowered to show keeled V-shape. Swift, strong direct flight with rapid wing beats, holds tail folded in a V shape while flying.
Harris's Sparrow
Harris's Sparrow: Large sparrow with dark-streaked, brown upperparts and white underparts with dark-streaked sides. Head has stark black crown, face, and throat. Gray cheek patch is marked by a thin, black line. Bill is pink. Alternates rapid wing beats with brief periods of wings pulled to sides.
Rusty Blackbird
Rusty Blackbird: Medium blackbird, black overall with a dull, blue-green sheen, yellow eyes. Forages on ground of wet woodlands and fields, wades in marshes or small pools of water. Feeds on insects, caterpillars, snails, crustaceans, small fish, salamanders, fruits, grains and seeds.
Thayer's Gull
Thayer's Gull: Large gull, gray upperparts, white head, tail, underparts. Bill is yellow with red spot near the end of the lower mandible. Wings are gray with white-spotted, dark gray tips. Legs are dark pink. Direct flight, strong, steady wing beats, soars on thermals or updrafts.
Little Gull
Little Gull: The smallest of all gulls, with pale gray upperparts and white nape, neck, breast, belly, and tail. Hood is black and extends onto upper neck. Underwings are dark. Bill is dark red with black tip. Legs and feet are red-orange. Strong direct flight with deep wing beats.
Nelson's Sparrow
Nelson's Sparrow: Small sparrow with brown streaked upperparts. Breast and sides are pale brown with pale streaks; throat, belly, and undertail coverts are white. Head has gray-brown crown and nape, orange-brown face, and gray cheeks. Tail is short and pointed. Pink-gray legs and feet.
Yellow-headed Blackbird
Yellow-headed Blackbird: Medium-sized blackbird with black body, bright yellow hood and breast, and distinct white wing patches. Bill, legs and feet are black. Forages in low vegetation and on the ground. Feeds on insects, larvae, snails, seeds, and grains. Strong direct flight on rapid wing beats.
Ruddy Turnstone
Ruddy Turnstone: This medium-sized sandpiper has red-brown upperparts, white rump and underparts, and a black-marked face. It has a short, dark, slightly upturned bill, a white tail with a black terminal band, and orange legs and feet. The wings have a unique brown, black, and white pattern visible in flight. Feeds on invertebrates. Swift direct flight with rapid wing beats. Sexes are similar.
Ruff
Ruff: This large sandpiper has variably-colored frilly tufts on the neck, ranging from black to rufous, to white to speckled and barred. It has an orange-brown head, white belly, orange bill with dark drooped tip and orange-yellow legs. The female lacks ruff and is smaller than the male. Diet includes seeds, insects and other invertebrates. Low, direct flight with rapid wing beats.
Red Knot
Red Knot: This medium-sized sandpiper has black, brown and gray scaled upperparts, a red-brown face, neck, breast and sides, and a white lower belly. It has a slightly curved black bill. The wings show white bars in flight. Diet includes insects, larvae, mollusks and crabs. It has a swift direct flight with rapid wing beats. Sexes are similar.
Red-necked Phalarope
Red-necked Phalarope: This medium-sized sandpiper has a brown-striped dark gray back, mottled gray breast, white throat and belly, gray head, nape, and flanks, rust-brown neck and upper breast and a thin black bill. Females are larger and more brightly colored than males. Diet includes insects and crustaceans. Flight is swift and swallow like, with rapid wing beats, quick movements and turns.
Whimbrel
Whimbrel: This large long-legged sandpiper has brown and white mottled upperparts and buff underparts with faint streaks on sides and flanks. It has a white-striped black crown. Neck is long and streaked; long black decurved bill, blue-gray legs and feet. Tail and rump are brown and black barred. Diet includes insects and worms. Direct flight with strong fast wing beats. Sexes are similar.
Yellow Rail
Yellow Rail: Small rail with pale yellow-striped, dark brown upperparts. White throat, buff breast, flanks, and belly are barred black-and-white. Head has buff face with dark brown cap, eye patches. Bill is short, yellow. Wings are dark with large white patches visible in flight. Short black tail.
Sora
Sora: This small rail has dark gray-brown upperparts with black-and-white streaks, gray breast and dark gray flanks and belly with white bars. Gray head has a darker crown and nape and black face, chin and throat. It has a dark-tipped yellow bill. Low, weak and floppy flight over short distances with legs dangling. Feeds on seeds, grasses, insects and snails. Sexes are similar.
Virginia Rail
Virginia Rail: Medium rail with brown-and-black mottled upperparts, white throat, rust-brown breast, and black-and-white barred belly. Head has black crown, gray face, and white eyebrows. Bill is long, red-brown, and curved down. Legs are orange-brown. Tail is short, black above, and white below.
Eastern Whip-poor-will
Eastern Whip-poor-will: Medium-sized nightjar with gray-brown-black mottled upperparts and pale gray-black underparts. Throat is black; eyebrows and neckband are white. Tail is long and rounded with large white corner patches. Until recently, this bird and the Mexican Whip-poor-will were combined as the Whip-poor-will.
Eastern Wood-Pewee
Eastern Wood-Pewee: Small flycatcher, gray-olive upperparts, pale gray underparts. Bill is dark except for yellow base of lower mandible. Wings are dark with two white bars. Black legs, feet. Feeds on insects, spiders and berries. Slow fluttering direct flight on shallow wing beats.
Yellow-bellied Sapsucker
Yellow-bellied Sapsucker: Medium woodpecker, black-and-white mottled upperparts, white rump, yellow-washed white underparts. Red throat, black border. Red crown, black-and-white striped face, neck. Dark wings have white shoulder patch. Black tail has black-barred, white center stripe.
Eastern Bluebird
Eastern Bluebird: Small thrush with bright blue upperparts, rust-brown throat and breast, and white belly and vent. Forages in the open from low branches for insects, earthworms, and spiders. Eats mostly berries and seeds in winter. Slow, direct flight with shallow, jerky wing beats.
Mountain Bluebird
Mountain Bluebird: Small thrush with brilliant blue back, head, and wings. Throat and breast are paler blue, and belly and undertail coverts are white. Female is gray overall with blue wings, rump, and tail. Hovers more than other bluebirds and drops on prey from above, also catches insects in flight. Eats mostly insects in the summer.
Snow Bunting
Snow Bunting: Medium-sized, strikingly white sparrow with black back, central tail, and wing tips. Bill, legs and feet are black. Forages on ground for seeds, insects, larvae and caterpillars. Swift flight, alternates rapidly beating wings with brief periods of wings pulled to sides.
Wild Turkey
Wild Turkey: This large, ground-walking bird is iridescent dark brown overall with black and green bars and a small, featherless blue head that changes color with mood. Red throat wattles, black breast beard and legs with spurs. Female is smaller, duller, and lacks spurs and beard. Diet includes insects and grains. Swift powerful flight for short distances with rapid wing beats and deep strokes.
Blue-headed Vireo
Blue-headed Vireo: Medium-sized vireo with olive-green upperparts, white underparts, and yellow flanks. Head has blue-gray hood, white spectacles, and white throat. The wings are dark with two white or pale yellow bars. Weak, fluttering flight with rapid wing beats. May hover briefly.
Eastern Kingbird
Eastern Kingbird: Large flycatcher, blue-black back, wings, black tail with white terminal band, white underparts. Head is black, has inconspicuous red crown feathers visible when bird is displaying. Black bill, legs, feet. Fluttering stiff-winged direct flight with shallow wing beats.
Scarlet Tanager
Scarlet Tanager: Medium tanager with brilliant red body, black wings, tail. The only bird in North America with this unique plumage. Heavy bill is yellow-gray. Gray legs and feet. Winter male has dull green upperparts, yellow-green underparts, often interspersed with red during molt.
Willow Ptarmigan
Willow Ptarmigan: Small grouse, winter adult is all white with dark-edged tail and small orange-red eye combs. Summer bird has rust-brown upperparts, head, breast, white eye-ring, orange-red eye comb, white wings, belly, leg feathers; brown tail. Unlike other ptarmigans, the male stays with the female and defends its nest-it is known to attack anything that comes to close.
Orchard Oriole
Orchard Oriole: Small oriole, black head, back, tail, and chestnut-orange shoulder patches, underparts, rump. Wings are black with single broad white bar; flight feathers have white edges. Feeds on insects, fruits, berries, nectar and flowers. Swift direct flight on rapid wing beats.
Gray Catbird
Gray Catbird: Small, shy, dark gray mockingbird with black cap and red-brown undertail coverts. The bill, legs, and feet are black. Forages on ground, shrubs and branches. Feeds mostly on insects and their larvae, spiders, berries and fruits. Swift direct flight on rapid wing beats.
American Redstart
American Redstart: Medium, active warbler with black upperparts and hood, distinctive orange-red patches on wings, sides, and long, fanned tail, and white underparts. Bill, legs, and feet are black. Female has gray head and gray-olive upperparts and white underparts with yellow on flanks and tail. It frequently flashes its colorful wings and tail to flush insects from foliage.
Red-eyed Vireo
Red-eyed Vireo: Medium vireo with olive-brown upperparts and white underparts. Head has a gray cap, white eyebrow, black eyestripe, and red eyes. Blue-gray legs and feet. Alternates short glides with series of rapid wingbeats. May hover briefly to pick berries or insects from foliage.
Yellow-throated Vireo
Yellow-throated Vireo: Large vireo, olive-gray upperparts, gray rump. Throat and breast are bright yellow, belly is white. Eyes are dark. Spectacles are yellow. Wings are dark with two white bars. Legs and feet are black. It is the most colorful member of its family in North America.
Bobolink
Bobolink: Small, lark-like blackbird, all-black except for buff nape, white rump, and white wing patches. Tertials and wing coverts are lined with buff. Tail feathers are sharply pointed. Legs and feet are gray. Eats caterpillars, insects, seeds and grains. Strong undulating flight.
Baltimore Oriole
Baltimore Oriole: Small oriole, mostly bright orange with black hood and back. Wings are black with orange shoulder patches and strongly white-edged feathers that appear as bars. Black base, center form T-shaped mark on orange tail. Strong swift and direct flight on rapid wing beats.
House Sparrow
House Sparrow: This medium-sized stocky sparrow has black-streaked brown upperparts, pale gray underparts, brown wings with a single white bar, pale gray cheeks and crown, black throat, upper breast, and a short, thick, black conical bill. Female lacks black and is pale gray-brown overall with buff eyebrows. Feeds mostly on grains and seeds. Agile fliers with an undulating flight pattern.
Canada Goose
Canada Goose: This long-necked goose has a large gray-brown body, large webbed feet and a wide flat bill. It has dark upperparts, paler underparts, a white vent, cheeks and chinstrap, and a black head and neck. Strong deep wing beats. Strong powerful direct flight. Flies in a in V formation in migration. Feeds on grasses, sedges, berries and seeds. Sexes are similar, but males are larger.
Gray Jay
Gray Jay: Medium-sized, fluffy, crestless jay with gray upperparts, paler underparts, and a short bill. Tail is long and white-tipped. Feeds on insects, carrion, refuse, seed, nuts, berries, mice, eggs and young of other birds. Light and bouyant flight on steady wing beats. Glides between perches.
Pine Siskin
Pine Siskin: Small finch with brown-streaked body. Wings have small patches of yellow and two white wing-bars. Tail is dark, notched, and has small yellow patches. Bill is slender and pointed. Forages on ground and in trees for seeds and insects. Flight is swift and high, travels in compact flocks.
American Goldfinch
American Goldfinch: Male is a small, noisy finch with a bright yellow body, black cap, wings, and tail, and white rump and undertail coverts. Wings have flashy white patches and bright yellow shoulder bar. Bill is pink and conical. Female is duller with olive back and lacks black cap and yellow shoulder bars. Winter male has olive-gray to olive-brown upperparts, paler underparts, yellow shoulder bar, white wing bar, dark bill, and may show black on forehead and yellow on throat and face. Winter female is duller with buff wing and shoulder bars, and lacks yellow and black on face and head. Juvenile resembles winter female but has yellow wash on throat and breast.
Lesser Scaup
Lesser Scaup: Medium-sized diving duck has finely barred gray back and gray-washed white underparts. Head, neck and breast are black with purple gloss. It has yellow eyes, blue-gray bill, black tail and black wings with white patches. Females are chocolate brown with lighter sides, red-brown head and white patch at base of dark gray bill. Feeds on crustaceans, mollusks, small fish, seeds and vegetative plants. Swift direct flight with rapid wing beats.
Mallard
Mallard: This medium-sized duck has a gray body, chestnut-brown breast, green head, white neck ring, yellow bill, wing speculum is white-bordered metallic purple-blue, white edged dark tail, two curled black feathers, and orange legs and feet. Feeds on insects and crustaceans. Females are mottled brown with orange-brown bills and no curled tail feathers. Swift direct flight with strong wing beats.
Northern Pintail
Northern Pintail: This large duck has gray and black upperparts, white neck and underparts, gray sides, long black pointed tail, brown head, throat and nape. White stripe divides front and back of neck, green speculum is bordered by buff. Feeds on seeds and aquatic insects. Females are mottled brown all over with slim, tan head, long neck and a shorter tail. Direct flight with rapid wing beats.
Black-billed Magpie
Black-billed Magpie: Large, noisy jay, mostly black, with very long tail and dark, stout bill. Wings and tail are iridescent blue and green-black. White belly and sides. Eats insects, larvae, carrion. Direct flight on shallow, steady wing beats. Often glides between perches or from perch to ground.
Western Grebe
Western Grebe: Large, long-necked grebe with dark gray upperparts, white underparts, gray sides and flanks. Lower face and front of neck are white; black cap extends below eye. Back of neck is black. Eyes are red. Bill is long, thin, and dull olive-yellow. Winter birds are duller gray and juveniles are light gray overall. Wings have white stripes visible in flight.
Pied-billed Grebe
Pied-billed Grebe: This medium-sized, stocky grebe has brown upperparts, paler brown underparts with barred sides and flanks and distinct white under tail coverts. It has a black chin, a white bill with a central black ring and dark eyes. Feeds on aquatic insects, vegetation, small fish and crustaceans. Direct flight with rapid wing beats. Sexes are similar.
Gyrfalcon
Gyrfalcon: Large northern falcon with three color morphs: dark, white, and gray. Dark morph is dark gray with pale streaks on throat and upper breast. White morph is white with dark spots and markings on wings, nape, and sides. Gray morph is a mix. The eyes, bill, and legs of all morphs are yellow.
Belted Kingfisher
Belted Kingfisher: This medium-sized bird has a bushy crest, white collar and large, black dagger-like bill. It has blue-gray upperparts, white underparts and gray legs and feet. Males have one blue band across the white breast, while females have a blue and chestnut band. It hovers above water to search for prey such as crayfish and frogs. Slow direct flight with an erratic pattern.
Double-crested Cormorant
Double-crested Cormorant: Medium cormorant with iridescent black body and orange throat pouch. Western birds have white feather tufts over each eye in early summer. Pale bill is long and hooked. Black legs and feet. Feeds on fish, amphibians and crustaceans. Strong direct flight, soars on thermals.
Horned Grebe
Horned Grebe: Small grebe, red-brown neck, breast and flanks, nearly black throat and back. Head has black cap, white face, conspicuous buff-orange to yellow ear plumes. Bill is dark with white tip, eyes are dark red. Feeds on aquatic insects, fish and crustaceans. Direct flight on rapid wing beats.
American Coot
American Coot: Medium-sized, chicken-like swimming bird, dark gray to black overall, short, white bill and undertail coverts. Toes are lobed, not webbed. Upper edge of frontal shield is red, but usually only visible at close range. Swift direct flight with rapid wing beats, feet protrude past tail.
Common Loon
Common Loon: Large loon, white-spotted, black upperparts and white underparts. Head, neck are green-black with white-streaked neckbands. Bill is black and thick. Eyes are red-brown. Dives for small fish and crustaceans. Direct flight on strong deep wing beats, head, neck and feet extend beyond body.
American Wigeon
American Wigeon: This is a medium-sized duck with a brown body, white crown, a large green ear patch extending to the back of the head, buff washed breast and sides and a white belly. It has a swift direct flight with strong wing beats. Shoulder patches are visible in flight. It has a black-tipped pale blue bill. It feeds on aquatic plants, insects and mollusks.
Bufflehead
Bufflehead: This small diving duck is mostly white with a glossy green-black to purple-black head and back. The head has a large white patch behind eye. The wings are dark with white patches visible in flight. It feeds on aquatic plant seeds, and insects, larvae and snails. It has a swift direct flight with rapid wing beats.
Common Goldeneye
Common Goldeneye: Medium diving duck, white-striped black upperparts, white underparts. Head is iridescent green-black with white circular patch between yellow eyes and dark gray bill. Wings are dark with large white patches conspicuous in flight. Legs and feet are yellow. Swift, direct flight.
Brewer's Blackbird
Brewer's Blackbird: Medium-sized blackbird with purple gloss on head and neck and green gloss on body and wings. Eyes are yellow. Follows farm tractors and plows. Forages on ground. Feeds on caterpillars, insects, fruits, seeds and grains. Strong, swift and direct flight with rapidly beating wings.
Brown-headed Cowbird
Brown-headed Cowbird: Small blackbird with glossy brown head, heavy bill, and dark eyes. The black body has a faint green sheen. Walks on ground to forage and holds tail cocked over back. Feeds on caterpillars, insects, spiders, fruits, grains and seeds. Swift direct flight with rapid wing beats.
Turkey Vulture
Turkey Vulture: Medium vulture, mostly black with red, featherless head and upper neck. Wings are held in a shallow V in flight. One of the few birds of prey that is able to use its sense of smell to find food. They are attracted to the smell of mercaptan, a gas produced by the beginnings of decay.
Ruby-crowned Kinglet
Ruby-crowned Kinglet: Medium kinglet, olive-green upperparts and olive-buff underparts. Head has inconspicuous tuft of red crown feathers and white eye rings. Wings are dark with two white bars. Tail is slightly notched and has white edges. Weak fluttering flight on shallow wing beats.
Red-breasted Merganser
Red-breasted Merganser: This medium-sized diving duck has black upperparts, gray sides, rust-brown breast, white belly, green head, double crests and neck, and white neck ring. The long thin bill, legs and feet are bright orange. Females are brown-gray with gray-washed, red-brown head, double crest and white breast and belly. Feeds mostly on small fish. Swift direct flight with rapid wing beats.
Ruddy Duck
Ruddy Duck: This small, bright red-brown duck has a black cap extending below the eyes onto the nape, heavy blue bill and black tail. Some males have an all black head lacking white cheek patches. Females have a gray-brown neck and body, dull buff-brown head and neck sides, with a stripe across pale-gray cheek patch. Feeds on aquatic invertebrates and vegetation. Direct flight on rapid wing beats.
House Finch
House Finch: This medium-sized finch has brown-streaked back and wings, and brown-streaked white underparts. The head, throat and rump are typically pink-red; yellow to orange variants may occur. The tail is long and weakly notched. The female is brown-streaked overall. The bill is short and slightly decurved. Feeds mostly on seeds; takes some insects and fruits. It has a swift bounding flight.
Northern Shoveler
Northern Shoveler: This is a medium-sized dabbling duck with a large spoon-shaped bill. Males have a dark green head, dark bill, orange legs, yellow eyes, white breast and chestnut patch on the flanks; females are mottled light brown with orange-brown bill and legs and dark eyes. They feed mostly on aquatic plants and seeds. They have a strong direct flight with powerful rapid wing beats.
Blue Jay
Blue Jay: Medium, noisy jay with bright blue upperparts, pale gray underparts, distinct head crest, and neck surrounded with a curious black necklace. Black-barred wings and tail have prominent white patches. Direct flight with steady and bouyant wing beats. Glides between perches or to the ground.
Ring-necked Duck
Ring-necked Duck: This medium-sized diving duck has black upperparts, a weakly tufted, purple-black head, black neck, upper breast and tail, cinnamon collar, white lower breast and belly, pale gray sides, and a blue-gray bill with a white ring near the black tip. Female is drab brown with white eye ring. Feeds on submerged plants and aquatic invertebrates. Direct flight with rapid wing beats.
Surf Scoter
Surf Scoter: This medium-sized diving duck is entirely black except for white patches on the forehead and nape. It has an orange, black and white bill, white eyes and orange legs and feet. The female is less distinctly marked with smudgy face patches and dark bill. It dives for food, primarily mollusks and crustaceans. Rapid direct flight with strong wing beats. Flies in straight line formation.
American Crow
American Crow: Large, black bird with dark, stout bill, iridescent violet gloss on body, and blue-black wings. Tail is fan-shaped in flight. Eats insects, small invertebrates, amphibians, reptiles and mammals, eggs and young of other birds, grains, fruits, refuse, and carrion. Steady direct flight.
Common Raven
Common Raven: Large raven with all-black body, large, stout bill, wedge-shaped tail. Eats invertebrates, vertebrates, insects, carrion, refuse, eggs and young of other birds, and rodents. Strong flight, alternates several deep wing beats with long glides on flat wings. Soars on thermals, updrafts.
Canvasback
Canvasback: This is a large, flashy diving duck with a pale gray body, black breast and tail and gray legs and feet. The head is red-brown with a long sloping profile, a long dark bill and red eyes. It feeds primarily on aquatic plants. It has a rapid direct flight with strong wing beats and flies high, usually in V- formations.
Killdeer
Killdeer: This large banded plover has brown upperparts, white underparts, two distinct black bands cross upper breast and white stripes on the wings that are visible in flight. The tail and rump show rust-brown in flight. It has a black bill, pink-brown legs and feet. Feeds primarily on insects. It has a wavering, erratic flight; capable of swift direct flight. Sexes are similar.
Golden Eagle
Golden Eagle: Large raptor with dark brown body and golden-brown feathers on back of head and nape. Eyes and bill are dark. Cere is yellow. Legs are completely feathered. Feet are yellow. Alternates deep slow wing beats with glides, soars on thermals. Has been clocked in a steep glide at 120 mph.
Northern Harrier
Northern Harrier: This large hawk has gray upperparts, white rump, and white underparts with spotted breast. It has a dark hooked bill with a yellow base, yellow eyes, legs and feet. Long wings are gray above and white below with black tips. Females are brown above with varying degrees of brown and buff streaking below. Feeds mainly on small mammals. Alternates several deep wing beats with glides.
Black-crowned Night-Heron
Black-crowned Night-Heron: This is a medium-sized, stocky heron with short neck and legs, black upperparts, gray wings and white to pale gray underparts. It has a stout black bill, red eyes and yellow legs. It feeds on small invertebrates, crustaceans, vertebrates, mammals, the eggs and the young of other birds and, plants. It has a direct flight with slow steady wing beats. The sexes are similar.
Bald Eagle
Bald Eagle: Large, hawk-like bird, dark brown body and white head, tail. Heavy bill, legs, feet, eyes are yellow. Hunts for fish, which it sometimes steals from ospreys. Eats carrion and crippled or injured squirrels, rabbits, muskrats and waterfowl. Flap-and-glide flight, also soars on thermals.
American Bittern
American Bittern: Medium, secretive, heron-like wading bird with stout body and neck, and relatively short legs. Upperparts are streaked brown and buff and underparts are white with brown streaks. Throat is white with black slashes on sides of neck. Strong direct flight with deep rapid wing beats.
Least Bittern
Least Bittern: Very small, secretive heron with black cap and back, and white throat and belly. Wings have conspicuous pale brown patches visible in flight. The bill, legs and feet are yellow. Feeds on fish, insects, small amphibians, crustaceans and invertebrates.
Great Blue Heron
Great Blue Heron: This large heron has a blue-gray back, black sides and a gray-and-white striped belly. The long neck is gray with a black-bordered white throat stripe. The head has a white face, cap and black crest. The upper mandible is dark and the lower is yellow. It mainly feeds on small fish but will take a variety of foods. It has a direct flight on steady wing beats. Sexes are similar.
Green Heron
Green Heron: This small heron has gray-green upperparts, chestnut brown head, neck, and upper breast, and a paler brown belly. It has a green-black cap with a small crest and a white throat. The neck has a white central stripe. The bill is two-toned with a dark upper mandible and yellow lower. During the breeding season bill is black. It is an opportunistic feeder with fish as the primary food source. Direct flight. Sexes are similar.
Northern Hawk Owl
Northern Hawk Owl: Medium-sized, slender owl with white-spotted brown upperparts and brown-barred white underparts. The gray facial disk is partially bordered by a thick, brown stripe that extends to the upper breast; lacks ear tufts. Wings are long and relatively pointed. Tail is long and rounded.
Great Horned Owl
Great Horned Owl: Large owl with dark brown, gray-brown mottled upperparts and dark barred underparts. Head has distinct ear tufts and rufous facial disk. Throat and upper breast are white and may have dark spots. Northern birds are paler and grayer. Strong, silent, direct, flap and glide flight.
Long-eared Owl
Long-eared Owl: Medium-sized owl with gray-brown body with pale bars and heavy streaks on underparts. The facial disc is rufous with white a patch below the bill. The ear tufts are close together, long, black and rufous, and are not visible in flight. Bouyant, mothlike flight with silent wing beats.
Barred Owl
Barred Owl: Medium, large-headed owl with large, brown eyes, concentric rings around pale face, no ear tufts. Upperparts are brown with white markings. Underparts are white with dark bars on breast and dark streaks on belly. Heavily streaked, spotted, and variegated brown, white, and buff overall.
Great Gray Owl
Great Gray Owl: Large owl, dark gray body interspersed with bars and flecks of brown, pale gray, and white. Head is large and without ear tufts. Yellow eyes are relatively small. Bulky appearance when perching due to dense, fluffy plumage, long wings extending past body, and relatively long tail.
Snowy Owl
Snowy Owl: Large, white owl with variable black bars and spots. The head is round and lacks tufts, eyes are yellow, and the bill is black. Feathered feet and toes provide protection from the arctic cold. Direct flap-and-glide flight with powerful, deep wingbeats. North America's only all-white owl.
Boreal Owl
Boreal Owl: Medium owl, white-spotted, brown upperparts and thick brown-streaked, white underparts. Head is black with numerous small white spots, facial disks bordered with black, eyes are yellow-orange. Short flights have rapid wingbeats, longer ones are bouyant with shallow, silent wing beats.
Northern Saw-whet Owl
Northern Saw-whet Owl: Small, large headed owl, brown upperparts, white underparts with thick brown stripes. Head has gray facial disk with white "Y” between eyes; lacks ear tufts. Bill is dark. Wings are brown with white spots. White undertail coverts. Direct, silent flight with fluttering wing beats.
Short-eared Owl
Short-eared Owl: Medium owl, light and dark brown mottled upperparts and dark-streaked, pale buff underparts. Head has large, round, pale buff facial disk with fine, brown tinges, black around eyes, and small ear tufts. Eyes are yellow and bill is black. Flight is erratic with flopping wing beats.
Broad-winged Hawk
Broad-winged Hawk: Medium hawk, dark brown, mottled upperparts and brown-barred, white underparts. Pale underwings with black margins visible in flight. Tail is dark banded. Feeds on amphibians, reptiles, small mammals and birds, large insects. Flap-and-glide flight, soars on thermals and updrafts.
Sandhill Crane
Sandhill Crane: This large wading bird has a gray body, white cheeks, chin, and upper throat, and a bright red cap. It has a dark bill, yellow eyes and black legs and feet. It has a direct steady flight on heavy and labored wing beats, with a slow down stroke and a rapid and jerky upstroke. Flies in V or straight line formations. Diet is heavy in seeds and cultivated grains. Sexes are similar.
Whooping Crane
Whooping Crane: Adults are nearly all white except for red crown, black mask, and black primary feathers most visible in flight. The juvenile has rust-brown head and upper neck, and brown wash over mostly white body. Very rare bird; near extinction. Feeds on frogs, fish, mollusks, small mammals and crustaceans, grain and roots of water plants. Direct flight; slow downward wing beat and a powerful flick on the upbeat.
Little Blue Heron
Little Blue Heron: This medium-sized, slender heron has a slate-gray body and a purple-blue head and neck. The eyes are yellow and the bill is dark gray with a black tip. The legs and feet are dark. It feeds on small crustaceans, invertebrates and large insects. It has a direct flight with steady quick wing beats. The sexes are similar.
Snowy Egret
Snowy Egret: This is a medium-sized, totally white egret with a long slender black bill and yellow lores. The eyes are yellow, the legs are black, and the feet are bright yellow. The head, neck and back have long lacy plumes during breeding season. The diet varies but includes crustaceans, insects and fish. Buoyant flight with steady fast wing beats. The sexes are similar.
American Kestrel
American Kestrel: Small North American Kestrel, has two distinct black facial stripes, rust-brown tail and back, slate-blue wings, black-spotted underparts. Female is brown-barred above with brown-streaked white underparts. Eats bats, rodents, insects, frogs, small reptiles, and birds. Alternates several rapid wing beats with glides, also hovers. Soars on thermals.
Peregrine Falcon
Peregrine Falcon: This medium-sized falcon has blue-gray upperparts and heavily barred sides, belly and leggings. The breast may vary from white to spotted and barred. It has a black hood and sideburns, yellow fleshy eye ring, and yellow legs and feet. Feeds primarily on birds, which it takes in midair. Direct flight with rapid wing beats. Sexes look alike, but the female is a little bigger.
Prairie Falcon
Prairie Falcon: Medium falcon with brown upperparts, dark-spotted pale underparts, dark brown moustache stripe. Dark underwing-bars visible in flight. Feeds on small birds and mammals, and large insects. Swift flight with rapid wing beats. Sometimes alternates several rapid wing beats with a glide.
Merlin
Merlin: This small falcon has blue-gray upperparts, white to pale brown underparts with dark streaks, white throat, eye ring, and eyebrow, dark gray bill, brown or black barred tail with white tips. Pacific race is dark gray. Prairie race is light gray. Taiga race is a mixture. Females of all races are duller. Diet includes mostly small birds. Swift direct flight with rapid wing beats.
Cattle Egret
Cattle Egret: Small, stocky egret with a white body and pale orange-brown patches on the head, neck and back. The eyes, bill and legs are orange. This is the only white egret with both a yellow bill and yellow legs. It feeds primarily on insects. It has a direct flight on quick steady wing beats. The sexes are similar.
Northern Goshawk
Northern Goshawk: The adults are slate blue-gray to nearly black upperparts with very finely barred and streaked pale gray underparts. Head is dark with thick, white eyebrows and red eyes. Tail is paler gray with three or four dark bands. Sexes are similar, although female is usually larger. The juvenile is browner overall with bright yellow eyes. Alternates rapid wing beats with glides; soars on thermals.
Osprey
Osprey: This large raptor has dark brown upperparts, white underparts, faint breast band, small white head with dark crown, eye stripe and bill, gray legs and feet. Wings held at a distinct angle in flight, under wing showing barred flight feathers and diagnostic dark patches on the fore wing. Soars on thermals, deep slow wing beats alternating with glides. Feeds mainly on fish. Sexes similar.
Cooper's Hawk
Cooper's Hawk: Medium, agile hawk with dark blue-gray back and white underparts with many fine rufous bars. Cap is darker than upperparts. Eyes are red. The tail is long with thick black-and-white bands. Legs and feet are yellow. Alternates rapid wing beats and short glides, often soars on thermals.
Ferruginous Hawk
Ferruginous Hawk: Large hawk, white head, streaked, rust-brown shoulders, back, and feathered legs. Underparts have scattered rufous streaks. Gray-brown wings. Tail is white with rust-brown wash. Dark morph is red-brown with white flight feathers. Alternates deep flaps and glides, soars on thermals.
Sharp-shinned Hawk
Sharp-shinned Hawk: Small hawk with blue-gray upperparts and rufous bars on white underparts. Eyes are dark red. Wings are short and rounded. Tail is long and squared with heavy bars. Legs and feet are yellow. Flight consists of rapid wing beats followed by a short glide. Often soars on thermals.
Swainson's Hawk
Swainson's Hawk: Large hawk, dark brown upperparts, white throat, rufous upper breast, pale buff underparts. Tail is gray with faint bars, dark terminal band, and white trailing edge. Yellow legs, feet. Alternates series of powerful deep wing beats with long glides. Soars on thermals and updrafts.
Red-tailed Hawk
Red-tailed Hawk: Large, highly variable hawk with brown upperparts, head and throat. The underparts are pale with brown streaks. Wings are pale below with dark bar at leading edge and dark tips. The tail is red-brown with dark terminal band. Legs and feet are yellow. Soars on thermals and updrafts.
Rough-legged Hawk
Rough-legged Hawk: This large hawk has brown upperparts, paler, streaked head, brown-spotted white breast, dark breast band, and fully feathered legs. The wings are pale below and dark-edged. The upper half of the tail is white, lower half is finely banded. It feeds on small mammals and some birds. Alternates powerful flaps with glides. Hangs in wind and hovers over one spot. Sexes are similar.
Chimney Swift
Chimney Swift: Medium-sized swift, uniformly dark brown with slightly paler throat and upper breast. Inconspicuous spines extend past web at tips of tail feathers. Bill, legs and feet are black. Flight is rapid and batlike on swept-back wings, alternates with gliding. Soars on thermals and updrafts.
Bank Swallow
Bank Swallow: Small swallow with brown upperparts, and a brown breast band seperating white underparts from white throat and chin. Tail is notched. Brown legs, feet. The smallest North American swallow. Swift, erratic flight, alternating several shallow, rapid wing beats with short to long glides.
Western Wood-Pewee
Western Wood-Pewee: Medium-sized flycatcher with dull olive-gray upperparts and pale olive-gray underparts. Head has darker cap and slight crest. The wings are dark with two white bars. Feeds on insects, spiders and berries. Quiet and solitary. Weak fluttering flight with shallow rapid wing beats.
Purple Martin
Purple Martin: Large, vocal swallow with glossy dark purple-blue body and forked tail. It is the largest North American swallow. Black bill, legs and feet. Stong, graceful flight, alternates a few rapid wing beats with long glides. Catches and eats insects in flight and also forages on the ground.
Ruffed Grouse
Ruffed Grouse: Medium-sized grouse with crested head and scaled brown upperparts. White underparts have pale brown bars on breast and dark brown bars on belly and flanks. Sides of neck have black ruff. The tail is brown with fine, white bars and white-edged dark band at tip. Northern form is grayer.
Black-and-white Warbler
Black-and-white Warbler: Small, black-and-white striped warbler with a white median head stripe bordered by black. Black bill, legs and feet. It forages unlike any other warbler by moving up and down the trunks of trees and crawling under and over branches in a style similar to that of a nuthatch.
Chipping Sparrow
Chipping Sparrow: Medium, slender sparrow with black-streaked brown back and pale gray underparts. Cap is rufous, nape is gray, throat is white, and face stripes are black-and-white. Black bill. Pink-orange legs and feet. Short flight, alternates several rapid wing beats with wings pulled to sides.
Baird's Sparrow
Baird's Sparrow: Small sparrow with pale-streaked, rich dark brown upperparts, white underparts, and dark streaks on upper breast and flanks. Orange-brown crown is marked with fine dark lines. Legs and feet are pink-brown. Short low flights, alternates rapid wing beats with wings pulled to sides.
Ruby-throated Hummingbird
Ruby-throated Hummingbird: Medium hummingbird, iridescent green upperparts, head, flanks. Underparts are pale gray, paler breast, green wash on sides, belly; throat is bright red with black chin. Tail is dark, forked. Feeds primarily on nectar. Direct and hovering flight with very rapid wing beats.
Rose-breasted Grosbeak
Rose-breasted Grosbeak: Large finch, black head, back, bright red breast, and white rump, sides, belly. The wings are black with white patches above and red, white, black below. Long, slightly notched black tail with white patches. Female has brown streaked upperparts, buff streaked underparts and yellow wing linings. Eats seeds, caterpillars, insects, tree flowers, fruits and berries.
American Robin
American Robin: Large, familiar North American thrush, gray-brown upperparts, rich red-brown breast, and white lower belly and undertail coverts. Head appears black with white splotches surrounding the eyes, and throat is white with black streaks. Juvenile has heavily spotted underparts. Swift, direct flight on rapidly beating wings.
Indigo Bunting
Indigo Bunting: Small finch with brilliant, almost iridescent, blue plumage. Crown is darker blue with a purple tint. Wings and tail are black with blue edges. Feeds on insects, larvae, grains, seeds, berries. Short flights low over vegetation, alternates rapid wing beats with wings pulled to sides.
Lazuli Bunting
Lazuli Bunting: Small finch, bright blue upperparts, cinnamon-brown breast and sides, white belly. Dark wings with white wing bar. Forages on ground, low in trees and bushes. Eats seeds, insects, caterpillars. Short flights, alternates rapid wing beats with brief periods of wings pulled to sides.
Spotted Sandpiper
Spotted Sandpiper: This medium-sized sandpiper has olive-brown upperparts, white underparts with bold black spots, white eyebrow, barred tail and dull yellow legs. Wings have white stripes visible in flight. Low direct flight; wings flap in shallow arcs, producing clipped, stiff wing beats on drooping wings. Feeds mainly on small invertebrates such as midges and mayflies. Sexes are similar.
Willet
Willet: This large sandpiper has mottled gray-brown upperparts, white rump and lightly streaked and barred white underparts, white tail with dark brown tip, and blue-gray leg. Broad white stripes on black wings are visible in flight. Feeds on mollusks, crustaceans, insects and small fish. Flight is short and low, alternating rapid wing beats with glides. Sexes are similar.
American Avocet
American Avocet: Long-legged shorebird with long, thin, upcurved bill and distinctive black-and-white back and sides. Head and neck are bright rust-brown during summer. Legs and feet are gray. Feeds on insects, crustaceans, and invertebrates. Strong direct flight with neck extended.
Sanderling
Sanderling: This medium-sized sandpiper has dark-spotted, rufous upperparts and breast, white underparts and black bill, legs and feet. Wings have conspicuous white stripes visible in flight. Feeds on crustaceans, mollusks, isopods, worms, plants and insects. Swift direct flight with rapid wing beats. Sexes are similar.
Dunlin
Dunlin: This is a medium-sized bird with black-streaked, red-brown upperparts, a black belly patch and a streaked breast. The black bill is long and slightly decurved. The legs and feet are black. It wades in shallows and uses its bill to probe and pick up food. The diet includes marine worms, crustaceans and mollusks. It has a swift direct flight with rapid wing beats. The sexes are similar.
Blackburnian Warbler
Blackburnian Warbler: Medium warbler, yellow-orange head, black cap and cheek patch, and orange throat. Upperparts are black with white stripes and underparts are white with black- streaked flanks. Wings have prominent white patches. The tail is black with white on outer tail feathers.
Cape May Warbler
Cape May Warbler: Small warbler, olive-yellow upperparts, thick, black streaks on yellow underparts. Bright yellow face, chestnut-brown ear patch, black crown. Wings are dark with large white patches. First collected in Cape May, New Jersey in 1811 and not seen again in that area for over 100 years.
Red-necked Grebe
Red-necked Grebe: This large grebe has dark gray upperparts and cap, white lower face and nape, white underparts with gray flanks, red-brown neck and dark brown eyes. It has a long thick yellow bill with a dark tip and black legs and feet. Dives for small fish and crustaceans. Direct flight on rapid wing beats. Sexes are similar.
Clay-colored Sparrow
Clay-colored Sparrow: Medium sparrow with black-streaked brown upperparts and buff underparts. The face is pale with finely streaked crown, crisp brown cheek patch, white eyestripe, and gray nape. Pink-gray legs and feet. Short flight, alternates several rapid wing beats with wings pulled to sides.
Brant
Brant: This small goose has dark brown upperparts and brown-barred, pale gray underparts. The head is black, and the short black neck has a partial white ring. The tail and vent are white. It has a heavy direct flight with strong wing beats. It flies in a straight line formation. It feeds on green plants including eel grass and sea lettuce. The sexes are similar.
Greater White-fronted Goose
Greater White-fronted Goose: This medium-sized goose has a dark-brown body and the underparts are barred and flecked with black. The belly and under tail coverts are white. The front of the face has a white patch and the bill is usually pink-orange. The legs are orange. It feeds on seeds, grain, grasses and berries. It has a steady direct flight with rapid wing beats. The sexes are similar.
Northern Parula
Northern Parula: Small, compact warbler with blue-gray upperparts and bronze-green back patch. Throat and breast are yellow, breast band is chestnut-brown and black, belly and undertail coverts are white. White eye-ring is broken. Wings are blue-gray with two white bars. Tail is noticeably short.
Northern Waterthrush
Northern Waterthrush: Large, ground-walking warbler with dark brown upperparts and white to pale yellow underparts with dark, heavy streaks. Eyebrows are thick and vary from pale yellow to white. It flies swiftly in a direct line for short distances. Territorial in both its winter and summer ranges.
Eared Grebe
Eared Grebe: This small grebe has black upperparts, dark chestnut-brown flanks and white underparts. The head and neck are black. There are orange feathers on the face, the eyes are red, and the legs and feet are black. It feeds on aquatic insects and crustaceans. It has a direct flight with rapid wing beats. The sexes are similar in appearance.
Greater Yellowlegs
Greater Yellowlegs: This large sandpiper has mottled brown, gray and white upperparts. The underparts are white with dark streaks and spots. The bill is slightly upturned and the legs are long and yellow. Its long barred tail and white rump are conspicuous in flight. It feeds on insects, insect larvae and small fish. It has a swift direct flight, sometimes at great heights. Sexes are similar.
Chestnut-collared Longspur
Chestnut-collared Longspur: Small, sparrow-like bird with brown-streaked upperparts, black breast and flanks, some have chestnut on underparts, pale gray belly. Face is buff with black stripe behind eye. Nape is chestnut-brown, crown is black, and throat is white. Tail is black with strongly contrasting white outer tail feathers.
Short-billed Dowitcher
Short-billed Dowitcher: This large sandpiper has mottled gray, black, brown and red-brown upperparts, white rump, red-brown underparts with spots and bars, a long, straight dark bill and long, dark yellow-green legs. East and west coast birds are heavier barred and spotted, paler underparts and often show white bellies. Diet includes insects and crustaceans. Strong direct flight. Sexes similar.
Marbled Godwit
Marbled Godwit: This large sandpiper has black-marked, dark brown upperparts, and lightly barred, chestnut-brown underparts. It has a long pink bill with a black tip that is slightly upcurved. Its pale brown under wings are visible in flight. Feeds on crustaceans, mollusks, worms, insects, seeds and berries. It has a swift and direct flight. Sexes similar, but male is smaller with a brighter bill base.
American Pipit
American Pipit: Small pipit, gray-brown upperparts and pale buff underparts; breast is faintly to darkly streaked. Tail is dark with white edges. Black bill is thin and long. Legs and feet are black. It can be distinguished from sparrows by its longer bill and habit of wagging its tail up and down.
Clark's Grebe
Clark's Grebe: Large grebe, gray-black upperparts, white underparts, and slender neck with white on front and black on back. White face, black cap extends nearly to red eyes. Bill is yellow-orange. Until the 1980's thought to be a pale morph of the Western Grebe. Direct flight on rapid wing beats.
Ring-necked Pheasant
Ring-necked Pheasant: This large chicken-like pheasant has a metallic-brown body, iridescent green head, white neck ring, red eye patch and wattles, and a long pointed tail. Female is pale brown overall with dark markings, has shorter tail and lacks wattle. Diet includes seeds and insects. Swift direct flight with strong wing beats. First introduced to California from Asia as a game bird in 1857.
American White Pelican
American White Pelican: Huge, white seabird, enormous outstretched wings show black primaries, outer secondaries in flight. Bill, legs are bright orange, upper bill develops a fibrous keel during breeding season. Slow, deep wing beats. Soars high on thermals. Flies in straight line or V formation.
Song Sparrow
Song Sparrow: Medium sparrow, heavily streaked gray-brown upperparts. Dull white underparts have dark central breast spot, thick streaks. Head has brown crown, paler median stripe, pale gray eyebrow, white chin, dark brown moustache stripe. Rust-brown wings. Tail is long, usually tinged rust-brown.
Western Meadowlark
Western Meadowlark: This short stocky, ground-dwelling bird has dark-streaked brown upperparts, bright yellow underparts, and a broad black V on the breast. It has a dark brown-and-white striped crown, sharply pointed bill and brown tail with white edges. Feeds mostly on insects but also eats seeds. Flies low, with rapid shallow stiff wing beats followed by short glides. Sexes are similar.
Red-winged Blackbird
Red-winged Blackbird: Small blackbird with jet-black body and bright red shoulder patches edged with yellow on bottom. Runs or hops while foraging on the ground. Eats seeds, grains, berries, fruits, insects, caterpillars, spiders, snails, grubs and mollusks. Strong direct flight on rapid wing beats.
Fox Sparrow
Fox Sparrow: Large sparrow, varies from dark or gray-brown in the west, rufous in the east; upperparts may be so dark that back pattern is hard to see. Heavily streaked upperparts, converging at midbreast into a large, dark spot. Rust-brown tail. Bill has dark upper mandible, yellow lower mandible.
Orange-crowned Warbler
Orange-crowned Warbler: Small warbler with olive-green upperparts and faintly streaked, yellow underparts. The head has inconspicuous orange crown, broken eye-ring, and faint eye-line. Though it lives and nests in dense foliage close to the ground, the male perches at the tops of tall trees to sing.
Common Yellowthroat
Common Yellowthroat: Small, skulking warbler with olive-yellow upperparts, bright yellow throat and breast, and pale gray belly. The head has a black mask with a thick white border above, black bill. Legs are pink. Slow weak flight, alternates periods of rapid wing beats with wings pulled to sides.
Hermit Thrush
Hermit Thrush: Small thrush, with olive-brown to red- or gray-brown upperparts, black-spotted white underparts and rufous tail. Distinct white eye-ring. Pink legs, feet. Swift direct flight, may hover briefly over prey. Considered to have one of the most beautiful songs of all North American birds. The state bird of Vermont.
Warbling Vireo
Warbling Vireo: Small vireo, gray to olive-gray upperparts, white underparts; sides sometimes washed with yellow. Eyes are dark brown, have thick, white eyebrows and faint, dark eye-lines. Gray wings and tail. Legs and feet are blue-gray. Has the largest breeding range of any North American vireo.
Marsh Wren
Marsh Wren: Small wren with lightly barred, warm brown upperparts, black-and-white triangular patch on upper back, and dull white underparts with pale brown sides. Crown is dark and eyebrows are white. Tail is relatively short and dark-barred. Black bill is long and slender. Legs and feet are black.
White-crowned Sparrow
White-crowned Sparrow: Medium-sized sparrow with brown-streaked upperparts, small white throat patch, and plain gray underparts. The white crown has distinct black lines. Wings are brown with two pale bars. Short flights, alternates rapid wing beats with brief periods of the wings pulled to sides.
Ring-billed Gull
Ring-billed Gull: This medium-sized gull has gray upperparts and white underparts. It has a white head and yellow bill with a black ring near the tip. The wings are gray above, tipped black with white spots, and white below; yellow legs and feet. It has a strong direct flight on deep wing beats and soars on thermals. The sexes are similar.
Winter Wren
Winter Wren: Tiny wren with barred, dark brown upperparts and pale eyebrows. Brown underparts heavily barred on flanks, belly, and undertail. Tail is short. Bill is dark brown. Legs and feet are brown. Only member of the wren family found outside the Americas, occuring in Europe, Asia, and Africa.
Dark-eyed Junco
Dark-eyed Junco: Medium-sized sparrow with considerable geographic color variation, although all exhibit a pink bill, dark eyes, white belly, and dark-centered tail with white outer feathers. Gray-headed form has gray head, rump, breast, and sides, and rust-brown back. Slate-colored form is slate-gray overall with darker head. Oregon form has black hood, chestnut-brown back and buff-brown flanks. White-winged form is blue-gray overall and shows two white wing bars. Pink-sided form is blue-gray with darker wings and pink-gray flanks. Female of each form resembles male but is usually paler. Juveniles of all forms are heavily streaked brown with darker heads, white bellies, and white outer tail feathers.
California Gull
California Gull: This is a medium-sized gull with a white head and underparts, gray wings and black wing tips. The bill and legs are yellow, and it has a red eyering. It has a strong direct flight with deep wing beats. It feeds on worms, mice, other birds and their eggs, and garbage. The sexes are similar, but the males are usually larger than females, with a larger bill, head and tarsi.
Brown Creeper
Brown Creeper: Small, tree-clinging bird with brown-streaked upperparts and white underparts. White line over eye and long, decurved bill are conspicuous. Legs and feet are pink-buff. Feeds on insects, larvae, nuts and seeds. Strong direct flights of short duration on rapid and shallow wing beats.
Mew Gull
Mew Gull: Medium-sized gull with gray back and upperwings, and white head, neck, breast, and belly. Bill is bright yellow. Wings have white-spotted black tips; tail is white. Feet and legs are dull yellow. Graceful, bouyant flight. Undulating, with several rapid wingbeats and a pause.
Glaucous Gull
Glaucous Gull: This large white gull has a pale gray back and yellow eyes. The bill is yellow with a red spot on the lower mandible. The wings are white-edged and white tipped; the legs and feet are pink. It is an active predator of seabird nesting colonies. Diet includes fish, insects and birds. It has slow steady wing beats and soars on thermals and updrafts. The sexes are similar.
Wilson's Warbler
Wilson's Warbler: Small warbler with olive-green upperparts, bright yellow face and underparts, distinct black cap. It has a long, olive-brown tail which it moves up and down, or in a circular fashion, as it searches for food. It is more common in the West than in the East. Legs and feet are pink.
Tree Swallow
Tree Swallow: Medium-sized swallow with iridescent blue-green upperparts and white underparts. The wings are dark gray and tail is dark and forked. Black bill, legs and feet. Swift, graceful flight, alternates slow, deep wing beats with short or long glides. Turns back sharply on insects it passes.
Cliff Swallow
Cliff Swallow: Small, stocky swallow, dark blue-gray upperparts, pale orange-brown rump, buff underparts. Forehead is white or buff while throat, sides of face are orange-brown. Crown is blue-black, bill is short and black. Tail is dark and squared. Legs and feet are gray. Catches insects in flight.
Northern Flicker
Northern Flicker: Medium woodpecker, black-barred brown back, white rump, black tail. Underparts are black-spotted pale brown with black crescent on breast. Face is gray with brown crown and forehead. Legs and feet are gray. There is a Red-shafted (shown here) and a Yellow-shafted race.
Pileated Woodpecker
Pileated Woodpecker: Large woodpecker with mostly black body and white wing linings which are visible in flight. The head has a prominent red crest and cap, white face and neck stripes and a red moustache stripe, and large gray bill. Legs and feet are gray. The largest woodpecker in North America.
Loggerhead Shrike
Loggerhead Shrike: Medium shrike with gray upperparts and paler gray underparts. Mask is black and throat is white. Bill is heavy and slightly hooked. Wings are black with white patches. Tail is long, black, and white-edged. Low, swift flight, alternates rapid wing beats with wings pulled to sides.
Purple Finch
Purple Finch: Medium finch, rose-red body, brown streaks on nape, back. Sides, flanks, belly are dull white with red wash; sides show thick, faint streaks. Brown wings, notched tail. Female is brown streaked overall. Eats seeds, fruits, insects and caterpillars. Swift flight, alternates rapid wing beats with wings pulled to sides.
Northern Rough-winged Swallow
Northern Rough-winged Swallow: Small, stocky swallow, brown upperparts, paler underparts, pale brown throat. Tail is squared with white undertail coverts. Named for tiny hooks found on outer primary feathers. Swift, graceful flight, alternates several slow, deep wing beats with short or long glides.
Barn Swallow
Barn Swallow: Medium swallow with glittering blue-black upperparts, red-brown forehead, chin and throat. Dark blue-black breast band, belly is white to orange. Tail is deeply forked with long outer streamers. Black legs and feet. It is the most abundant and widely distributed swallow in the world.
Hairy Woodpecker
Hairy Woodpecker: Small woodpecker with black-and-white upperparts, white underparts. Head has red hindcrown patch. Face is white with black stripes.Tail is black with white outer tail feathers. Northwest birds have gray-brown breast, belly, and rump. Bill is long and black. Legs and feet are black.
European Starling
European Starling: Small, chunky, iridescent purple and green blackbird with long, pointed yellow bill, pink legs, and short tail. The feathers on back and undertail show buff edges. Feeds in open areas, normally on the ground. Strong, direct and swift flight on rapidly beating wings.
Rock Pigeon
Rock Pigeon: This is a large, highly variably colored dove. The wild form has a gray body, dark blue-gray head, neck, breast, and white rump. The wings are gray with two black bars. It has a gray rounded tail with a dark terminal band. Forages on the ground; feeds on grass, seeds, grains, clover and berries. Swift direct flight. Sexes are similar.
Northern Mockingbird
Northern Mockingbird: This medium-sized bird has gray upperparts, paler gray underparts and a faint eye line. The wings are gray-black with two white bars and large white patches, visible when spread. It has a long, gray tail edged with white, yellow eyes and black legs and feet. Feeds on fruit and insects. Several quick wing strokes alternated with wings pulled to the sides. Sexes are similar.
Cedar Waxwing
Cedar Waxwing: Small waxwing, red-brown upperparts, pale slate-gray rump, buff underparts. Head is crested, has black mask with narrow white band below. Yellow-tipped tail, white undertail coverts. Wings have red wax-like tips on secondaries from which it gets its name. Black bill, legs and feet.
Black-backed Woodpecker
Black-backed Woodpecker: Small woodpecker with black back, black wings with white spots on flight feathers, barred flanks, white underparts. Head has a conspicuous white cheek mark and yellow crown. Tail is black with white outer tail feathers. Black bill is long and stout. Legs and feet are gray.
Downy Woodpecker
Downy Woodpecker: The smallest woodpecker in North America. Has a white back, black nape and black wings with white spotting. Underparts are white. Face is white with black stripes. Hindcrown patch is red. Tail is black with black-spotted or barred white outer tail feathers. Bill is black and short.
Mourning Dove
Mourning Dove: This medium-sized dove has gray-brown upperparts and pink-brown underparts. The eyes are dark with a small black spot beneath. It has a dark bill, gray-brown wings with black spots and dark primaries. The tail is long and pointed, with black-edged white tips on outer feathers. Mostly feeds on seeds. Swift direct flight. Sexes are similar, but the male is slightly larger.
Olive-sided Flycatcher
Olive-sided Flycatcher: Large, heavy-billed flycatcher with dark olive-brown upperparts, streaked olive-brown sides, and white underparts. Head has slight crest and faint white eye-ring. Wings are dark with two pale bars. Dark tail is relatively short, broad, and slightly notched. Black legs, feet.